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PROPOSED ALTERNATE FLASH COMPOSITION TEST FOR FIREWORKS CLASSIFICATION USING THE DEFAULT TABLE / TRANSMITTED BY THE EXPERT FROM THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
. % Potassium Benzoate (fine powder)/ 10 wt.% Sulfur (fine powder)/10.5 wt. %Lampblack (nano-material) (...) Potassium Benzoate (fine powder)/ 10 wt. % Sulfur (fine powder)/10.5 wt. %Lampblack (nano- material) (...) % Potassium Perchlorate (100% 37 µ) /13.5 wt.% Potassium Benzoate (fine powder)/ 10% Sulfur (fine powder)/10.5%Lampblack (nano- material). 3.90, 1.00, 0.88 ( + ) Flash Composition 3 70% wt.
Language:English
Score: 1406740.2 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/2012/30&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
Consumption 2005 M illi on b bl p er d ay 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Price Demand Environmental impact ICAO Colloquium on Aviation Emissions with Exhibition 14 – 16 May 2007 OutlineOutline The Issues & Drivers Alternative Fuels Basics Causes for Caution & Optimism The Way Ahead ICAO Colloquium on Aviation Emissions with Exhibition 14 – 16 May 2007 Jet Fuel Chemistry 101Jet Fuel Chemistry 101 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 C2H5Aromatic – CnH2n-6 Naphthene – CnH2n Paraffin – CnH2n+2 CH3CHCH2CHCH2CH3 CH3 CH3 Iso-Paraffin – CnH2n+2 Jet Fuel comprises vast array of compoundsJet Fuel comprises vast array of compounds Ringed compounds related to higher particulate matter (PM) Ringed compounds related to higher particulate matter (PM) ICAO Colloquium on Aviation Emissions with Exhibition 14 – 16 May 2007 Average Composition Paraffins 60% Naphthenes 20% Aromatics 20% Sulfur 500 ppm Broad specifications allow significant variations in composition Jet A (Commercial), JP-8 (Military) very similar Sulfur spec limit 3000 ppm; avg~500 ppm n-C9 n-C10 n-C11 n-C12 n-C13 n-C14 n-C15 n-C16 C11H21 Sulfur Content, JP-8 1997 Buys 0 0. 02 0. 04 0. 06 0. 08 0. 1 0. 12 0. 14 0. 16 0. 18 0. 2 0. 22 0. 24 0. 26 0. 28 0. 3 0. 32 0. 34 0. 36 0. 38 0. 4 Sulfur, Mass % M ill io n ga llo ns 500 ppm 3000 ppm Conventional Jet FuelConventional Jet Fuel Edwards, Harrison & Maurice, AIAA-2001-0498 ICAO Colloquium on Aviation Emissions with Exhibition 14 – 16 May 2007 Drop-in replacements 1. Low Sulfur Jet-A Note: Jet-A or Low Sulfur Jet-A can be derived from conventional oil, tar sands, extra heavy oil, or oil shale 2. (...) Cryogenic Fuels (Hydrogen, methane) Al co ho ls Increasing tank volume and aircraft drag via whetted area In cr ea si ng a irc ra ft w ei gh t Potential Alternative Aviation Fuels Potential Alternative Aviation Fuels ICAO Colloquium on Aviation Emissions with Exhibition 14 – 16 May 2007 Alternative Fuels Composition and Combustion Products Alternative Fuels Composition and Combustion Products Fuel + x1 O2 → x2 H2O + x3 CO2 (complete combustion) Assume sulfur in fuel is fully converted to SO2 ICAO Colloquium on Aviation Emissions with Exhibition 14 – 16 May 2007 Conventional versus F-T Aviation Fuels Composition Conventional versus F-T Aviation Fuels Composition 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16 C17 Carbon Number Vo lu m e % i+c-paraffins n-paraffins aromatics 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16 C17 Carbon Number i-paraffins n-paraffins Vo lu m e % Petroleum Jet A-1 Syngas-derived F-T Jet Fuel Moses et al., SwRI-8531, 1997 ICAO Colloquium on Aviation Emissions with Exhibition 14 – 16 May 2007 Less Emissions – ~ 1.6% less CO2 created during fuel combustion – 50% to 90% less particulate matter (PM) (measured) – 100% reduction in SOx – ~ 1% less fuel burn (increased gravimetric energy density) Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Environmental Implications Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Environmental Implications ICAO Colloquium on Aviation Emissions with Exhibition 14 – 16 May 2007 Particulate matter (PM) impacts health and welfare and contributes to visibility degradation Many U.S. airports in areas that are not compliant with national air quality standards for PM PM also a concern because of potential climate impacts PM 2.5 Nonattainment PM is a Growing Concern for Aviation PM is a Growing Concern for Aviation Data for 50 Largest U.S.
Language:English
Score: 1326634.8 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...ts/2007-Colloquium/Maurice.pdf
Data Source: un
Schedule of introduction of environmental Schedule of introduction of environmental requirements to motor vehicles and fuels in Russiarequirements to motor vehicles and fuels in Russia Year of introduction Vehicle emissions Petrol Diesel fuel Western Europe Russia Western Europe Russia Western Europe Russia EURO-2 1996 2006 1994-1995(EN 228:1993) 1997 (GOST R 51105) с 01.1996 EN-590:1996 - EURO-3 2000 2008 2000(EN 228:1999) 2002 (GOST R 51866) 2000 EN-590:1999 2005 ГОСТ Р 52368 EURO-4 2005 2010 2005(EN 228:2004) 2005 ( TU 38.401-58- 350-2005) 2005 EN-590:2004 2005 ГОСТ Р 52368 Requir ements Schedule of introduction of environmental requirements to motor vehicles and fuels in Russia 2010 20142006 Euro-3 Euro-4 Euro-2 FuelFuel VehiclesVehicles Euro-2 Euro-3 Euro-4 Euro-5 2008 2009 2012 Russian car fleet structure by environmental class 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 EURO - 0 EURO - 1 EURO - 2 EURO - 3+ Russian truck fleet structure by environmental class 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 EURO - 0 EURO - 1 EURO - 2 EURO - 3+ Russian bus fleet structure by environmental Russian bus fleet structure by environmental classclass ((20062006)) EURO - 0 68% EURO - 2 13% EURO 3+ 2% EURO - 1 17% EURO - 0 EURO - 1 EURO - 2 EURO 3+ Fuel specifications in CIS countriesFuel specifications in CIS countries PetrolPetrol GOST GOST 20842084--7777 GOST R GOST R 5110551105--9797 GOST GOST 3107731077--20022002 EN 228:2004 EN 228:2004 (EURO(EURO--4)4) Lead, g/dmLead, g/dm33 0.0130.013 0.0100.010 0.0100.010 0.0050.005 Benzene, Benzene, volvol%% -- 5.05.0 5.05.0 1.01.0 Aromatics, Aromatics, volvol%% -- -- 5555 3535 Sulfur, Sulfur, ppmppm 10001000 500500 500500 50 or 1050 or 10 11111111--PolyaromaticsPolyaromatics, wt%, wt% 50 or 1050 or 10200020002000/ 4000/ 50002000/ 4000/ 5000Sulfur, Sulfur, ppmppm 820 820 -- 845845820 820 -- 860860830 830 -- 860860Density at 15Density at 1500C, C, kg/dmkg/dm33 515149494545CetaneCetane numbernumber EN 590:2004 (EUROEN 590:2004 (EURO--4)4)EN 590:1993 (EUROEN 590:1993 (EURO--2)2)GOST GOST 305305--8282 Diesel fuelDiesel fuel Main environmental parameters of motor fuel in Russia Environmental class and duration of requirements Parameter Unit EURO-2 (up to 31.12.2008) EURO-3 (up to 31.12.2009) EURO-4 (up to 31.12.2012) EURO-5 (under discussion) PETROL Maximum sulfur content ppm 500 150 50 10 Maximum volume fraction of aromatics % - 42 35 35 Maximum volume fraction of unsaturated hydrocarbons % - 18 18 18 Maximum volume fraction of benzene % 5 1,0 1,0 1,0 Maximum lead concentration mg/dm3 < 5 < 5 < 5 < 5 DIESEL FUEL Maximum sulfur content ppm 500 350 50 10 Minimum cetane number 45 51 51 51 Maximum mass fraction of aromatics % - 11 11 11 *) – The appropriate Technical Regulation was adopted by the Government in February 2008, and will come into force after six months. Structure of petrol production in RussiaStructure of petrol production in Russia, %, % Petrol Year 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 Total petrol production, million tons 40,6 27,4 27,2 29,5 34,4 А-72 5,7 0,2 - - - А-76(АИ-80)- EURO-1,2 78,3 76,3 55,3 39,6 31,3 АИ-93(АИ-91,92)- EURO-2 15,4 22,2 38,3 47,5 55 АИ-95 (АИ-96)- EURO-2,3 0,4 1,1 6,2 12,6 13,3 АИ-98 - EURO-2,3 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,3 0,4 Share of leaded petrol, % 61,3 53,1 2,3 - - Share of unleaded petrol, % 38,7 46,9 97,7 100 100 Structure of Russian petrol production by sulfur Structure of Russian petrol production by sulfur contentcontent 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1990 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 S ha re o f t ot al p et ro l p ro du ct io n, % 500-1000ppm <500ppm Structure of Russian diesel fuel production Structure of Russian diesel fuel production (by sulfur content, %(by sulfur content, %*)*) Maximum sulfur content, ppm 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 10(Евро-5)**) - - - - - 0,8 1,7 50(Евро-4)**) - - - - - 7,5 9,1 350(Евро-3)**) - - - 3,5 5,3 3,5 5,7 500 9,8 11,7 12,2 11,3 1,6 7,8 4,4 1000 6,3 3,9 3,1 - 1,4 2,4 2,6 2000 72,3 77,1 78,1 79,2 75,5 72,3 70,9 5000 11,6 7,3 6,6 6,0 6,2 5,7 5,6 Итого 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 *) - Excluding oil refineries owned by JSC Gazprom and MINI-NPZ **) - EN-590 Structure of Russian diesel fuel production by Structure of Russian diesel fuel production by sulfur contentsulfur content 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1990 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Sh ar e in to ta l d ie se l f ue l p ro du ct io n, % 2000-5000ppm 1000-2000ppm 350-1000ppm <350ppm <50ppm Euro IV diesel fuel retail by Lukoil “ECTO” petrol retail by Lukoil Requi- rements PetrolsPetrols Surgut oil refinery (owned by JSC “Gazprom”) JSC «JANOS» JSC «NU NPZ» JSC «NK NPZ» “Regular- 92” “Premium- 95” “Premium- 95” “Regular- 92” “Regular- 92” “Premium- 95” Maximum lead content, mg/dm3 5 < 5 < 5 < 5 < 5 < 5 < 5 Maximum volume fraction of hydrocarbons, % , including: Unsaturated hydrocarbons 18 0 0,2 2,2 1,8 1,1 0,4 Aromatics 42/35 35 41 32 36 32,5 37,8 Benzene 1,0 0,7 0,8 0,4 0,7 0,7 0,8 Maximum sulfur content, ppm 150/50 50 50 140 140 50 40 Maximum oxygen comtent, % 2,7 1,5 2,4 2,0 0,5 1,8 2,5 Parameter Main environmental parameters of Russian Main environmental parameters of Russian EUROEURO--3 and EURO3 and EURO--4 4 petrolspetrols produced by some produced by some Russian companiesRussian companies EURO-3 EURO-4 Use of CNG as a motor fuel in CIS countriesUse of CNG as a motor fuel in CIS countries - Russia: about 70 000 motor vehicles are operated on CNG (during Soviet time – about 200 000); - Ukraine: 100 000 motor vehicles (1.5% of the fleet) are operated on CNG; - Moldova: about 5 000 motor vehicles are CNG-fueled; - Belarus: there is a national programme of gasification of the country’s vehicle fleet; - Tajikistan: there are 10 600 motor vehicles operated on CNG; - Kyrgyzstan: CNG-fuelled motor vehicles numbered about 6 000 in 2007; - Georgia: Ministry of Environment reported about 1.7% of motor vehicles using CNG (2005); - Armenia: 1 394 vehicles are fueled by CNG (2007). (...) Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Overview of the CIS states Dynamics of the main motor transport activity parameters in Russian Federation Russian vehicle fleet dynamics Urban motorization levels in Russia Motor fleet structure by age in CIS countries (cars),% Motor fleet structure by age in CIS countries (buses),% Motor fleet structure by age in CIS countries (trucks and light duty),% Age structure of the Russian car fleet Motor vehicle production in the CIS Some problems which define negative environmental and health impacts of motor transport in CIS countries Pollutant emissions from Russian motor vehicle fleet (2006) Dynamics of pollutant emissions by the Russian motor vehicle fleet Improvement of vehicle fleets’ environmental performance across CIS Improvement of vehicle fleets’ environmental performance across CIS Improvement of vehicle fleets’ environmental performance across CIS CIS countries where the use of leaded petrol is still not prohibited Schedule of introduction of environmental requirements to motor vehicles and fuels in Russia Schedule of introduction of environmental requirements to motor vehicles and fuels in Russia Russian car fleet structure by environmental class Russian truck fleet structure by environmental class Russian bus fleet structure by environmental class (2006) Fuel specifications in CIS countries Main environmental parameters of motor fuel in Russia Structure of petrol production in Russia, % Structure of Russian diesel fuel production (by sulfur content, %*) Structure of Russian diesel fuel production by sulfur content Euro IV diesel fuel retail by Lukoil “ECTO” petrol retail by Lukoil Use of CNG as a motor fuel in CIS countries Production of bio-fuels in CIS countries Recommendations of the Conference on Cleaner Fuels and Vehicles for Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia Steps recommended by the Conference on Cleaner Fuels and Vehicles Thanks for your attention!
Language:English
Score: 1317456.3 - https://unece.org/fileadmin/DA...au/Presentations/donchenko.pdf
Data Source: un
LETTER DATED 4 MAY 2017 FROM THE SECRETARY-GENERAL ADDRESSED TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL
The laboratory reports from the Designated Laboratories indicated the presence of sulfur mustard in the neat agent samples. The OPCW Laboratory conducted a full screening of samples where sulfur mustard, its by-products, and degradation products were identified. 5.45 The OPCW Laboratory report indicated the presence and the relative quantities of disulfide and trisulfide mustard analogs. The presence of a number of chlorinated species indicates that an excess of sulfur monochloride (S2Cl2) was used. It is assessed that this sulfur mustard was most likely produced using the Levinstein process. (...) The laboratory reports indicated the presence of biomarkers of sulfur mustard exposure. The full bio-medical laboratory report can be found in Annex 10.
Language:English
Score: 1307410.3 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc.../get?open&DS=S/2017/400&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
CASE STUDY OF THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF METHANE-RELATED EVENTS AT COAL MINES IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA : CASE STUDY MINE A : NOTE / BY SECRETARIAT
Table 1: Mine information 1 Mine Name Mine A 2 Current Owner Intentionally Left Blank 3 Status Active 4 Location 4.1 Country United States 4.2 Coal Basin/Region Western Basin 5 Mine Information Source: Keystone Coal Industry Manual (2005) Year of Initial Production 1982 Number of Employees 370 Mining Method Longwall/Continuous Depth to Seam (m) 1,000 - 2,000 Compliance Coala Yes Prep Plant on Site Yes 6 Coal Resource Information Source: Keystone Coal Industry Manual (2005) Coal Seams Mined Intentionally Left Blank Average Seam Thickness (m) 3.66 Minimum Average Maximum Sulfur Content of Coal Produced (%) 0.36 0.49 0.78 Minimum Average Maximum Heating Value of Coal (KJ/kg) 24,371 27,156 27,852 Type of Coal Bituminous Primary Market Steam Estimated Reserves Remaining (Mil metric tons) 136b Life Expectancy of the Mine 2020 a Defined as “a coal or a blend of coals that meets sulfur dioxide emission standards for air quality without the need for flue gas desulfurization” by the Energy Information Administration, http://www.eia.gov; and “any coal that emits less than 1.2 lbs (0.54 kg) of sulfur dioxide per million BTU (1.055 million KJ) when burned. Also known as low sulfur coal” by EPA, b Union Pacific Railroad, Customer Profile, http://www.uprr.com/customers/energy/coal/index.shtml ECE/ENERGY/GE.4/2007/8 page 5 Table 2: Production, ventilation, and drainage data for Mine A 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Coal Production (thousands metric tons/year)a 3,040.1 4,556.0 5,947.7 5,888.3 5,890.7 Estimated Total Methane Liberated (thousands m3/day)b 444.6 455.9 560.7 770.2 591.8 Emission from Ventilation Systems: (thousands m3/day)b 334.1 342.6 280.3 385.1 295.9 Estimated Methane Drained (thousands m3/day)b 110.4 113.3 280.3 385.1 295.9 Estimated Specific Emissions (m3/ton)b 48.5 33.1 31.1 43.3 33.3 Methane Recovered (thousands m3/day)c - - - 2.8 NA a MSHA Mine Yearly Reported Production Information, Data Retrieval System b US EPA, 2004. (...) The difficulty of studying these mines stems from the lack of easily obtainable public data. The data used in these case studies are available from the records of MSHA and other governmental entities.
Language:English
Score: 1267637.5 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...=ECE/ENERGY/GE.4/2007/8&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
It is estimated that leaded petrol will be in the country’s fuel market at least until 2009. 30 Schedule of introduction of environmental Schedule of introduction of environmental requirements to motor vehicles and fuels in Russiarequirements to motor vehicles and fuels in Russia Year of introduction Vehicle emissions Petrol Diesel fuelRequirements Western Europe Russia Western Europe Russia Western Europe Russia EURO-2 1996 2006 1994-1995(EN 228:1993) 1997 (GOST R 51105) с 01.1996 EN-590:1996 - EURO-3 2000 2008 2000(EN 228:1999) 2002 (GOST R 51866) 2000 EN-590:1999 2005 ГОСТ Р 52368 EURO-4 2005 2010 2005(EN 228:2004) 2005 ( TU 38.401-58- 350-2005) 2005 EN-590:2004 2005 ГОСТ Р 52368 31 Schedule of introduction of environmental requirements to motor vehicles and fuels in Russia 2010 20142006 Euro-3 Euro-4 Euro-2 FuelFuel VehiclesVehicles Euro-2 Euro-3 Euro-4 Euro-5 2008 2009 2012 32 Russian car fleet structure by environmental class 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 EURO - 0 EURO - 1 EURO - 2 EURO - 3+ 33 Russian truck fleet structure by environmental class 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 EURO - 0 EURO - 1 EURO - 2 EURO - 3+ 34 Russian bus fleet structure by environmental Russian bus fleet structure by environmental classclass ((20062006)) EURO - 0 68% EURO - 2 13% EURO 3+ 2% EURO - 1 17% EURO - 0 EURO - 1 EURO - 2 EURO 3+ 35 Fuel specifications in CIS countriesFuel specifications in CIS countries PetrolPetrol GOST GOST 20842084--7777 GOST R GOST R 5110551105--9797 GOST GOST 3107731077--20022002 EN 228:2004 EN 228:2004 (EURO(EURO--4)4) Lead, g/dmLead, g/dm33 0.0130.013 0.0100.010 0.0100.010 0.0050.005 Benzene, vol%Benzene, vol% -- 5.05.0 5.05.0 1.01.0 Aromatics, vol%Aromatics, vol% -- -- 5555 3535 Sulfur, ppmSulfur, ppm 10001000 500500 500500 50 or 1050 or 10 Diesel fuelDiesel fuel GOST GOST 305305--8282 EN 590:1993 (EUROEN 590:1993 (EURO--2)2) EN 590:2004 (EUROEN 590:2004 (EURO--4)4) Cetane numberCetane number 4545 4949 5151 Density at 15Density at 1500C, C, kg/dmkg/dm33 830 830 -- 860860 820 820 -- 860860 820 820 -- 845845 Polyaromatics, wt%Polyaromatics, wt% -- 1111 1111 Sulfur, ppmSulfur, ppm 2000/ 4000/ 50002000/ 4000/ 5000 20002000 50 or 1050 or 10 36 Main environmental parameters of motor fuel in Russia Environmental class and duration of requirements Parameter Unit EURO-2 (up to 31.12.2008) EURO-3 (up to 31.12.2009) EURO-4 (up to 31.12.2012) EURO-5 (under discussion) PETROL Maximum sulfur content ppm 500 150 50 10 Maximum volume fraction of aromatics % - 42 35 35 Maximum volume fraction of unsaturated hydrocarbons % - 18 18 18 Maximum volume fraction of benzene % 5 1,0 1,0 1,0 Maximum lead concentration mg/dm3 < 5 < 5 < 5 < 5 DIESEL FUEL Maximum sulfur content ppm 500 350 50 10 Minimum cetane number 45 51 51 51 Maximum mass fraction of aromatics % - 11 11 11 *) – The appropriate Technical Regulation was adopted by the Government in February 2008, and will come into force after six months. 37 Structure of petrol production in RussiaStructure of petrol production in Russia, %, % Petrol Year 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 Total petrol production, million tons 40,6 27,4 27,2 29,5 34,4 А-72 5,7 0,2 - - - А-76(АИ-80)- EURO-1,2 78,3 76,3 55,3 39,6 31,3 АИ-93(АИ-91,92)- EURO-2 15,4 22,2 38,3 47,5 55 АИ-95 (АИ-96)- EURO-2,3 0,4 1,1 6,2 12,6 13,3 АИ-98 - EURO-2,3 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,3 0,4 Share of leaded petrol, % 61,3 53,1 2,3 - - Share of unleaded petrol, % 38,7 46,9 97,7 100 100 38 Structure of Russian petrol production by sulfur Structure of Russian petrol production by sulfur contentcontent 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1990 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 S ha re o f t ot al p et ro l p ro du ct io n, % 500-1000ppm <500ppm 39 Structure of Russian diesel fuel production Structure of Russian diesel fuel production (by sulfur content, %(by sulfur content, %*)*) Maximum sulfur content, ppm 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 10(Евро-5)**) - - - - - 0,8 1,7 50(Евро-4)**) - - - - - 7,5 9,1 350(Евро-3)**) - - - 3,5 5,3 3,5 5,7 500 9,8 11,7 12,2 11,3 1,6 7,8 4,4 1000 6,3 3,9 3,1 - 1,4 2,4 2,6 2000 72,3 77,1 78,1 79,2 75,5 72,3 70,9 5000 11,6 7,3 6,6 6,0 6,2 5,7 5,6 Итого 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 *) - Excluding oil refineries owned by JSC Gazprom and MINI-NPZ **) - EN-590 40 Structure of Russian diesel fuel production by Structure of Russian diesel fuel production by sulfur contentsulfur content 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1990 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Sh ar e in to ta l d ie se l f ue l p ro du ct io n, % 2000-5000ppm 1000-2000ppm 350-1000ppm <350ppm <50ppm 41 Euro IV diesel fuel retail by Lukoil 42 “ECTO” petrol retail by Lukoil 43 Requi- rements PetrolsPetrols Surgut oil refinery (owned by JSC “Gazprom”) JSC «JANOS» JSC «NU NPZ» JSC «NK NPZ»Parameter “Regular- 92” “Premium- 95” “Premium- 95” “Regular- 92” “Regular- 92” “Premium- 95” Maximum lead content, mg/dm3 5 < 5 < 5 < 5 < 5 < 5 < 5 Maximum volume fraction of hydrocarbons, % , including: Unsaturated hydrocarbons 18 0 0,2 2,2 1,8 1,1 0,4 Aromatics 42/35 35 41 32 36 32,5 37,8 Benzene 1,0 0,7 0,8 0,4 0,7 0,7 0,8 Maximum sulfur content, ppm 150/50 50 50 140 140 50 40 Maximum oxygen comtent, % 2,7 1,5 2,4 2,0 0,5 1,8 2,5 Main environmental parameters of Russian Main environmental parameters of Russian EUROEURO--3 and EURO3 and EURO--4 4 petrolspetrols produced by some produced by some Russian companiesRussian companies EURO-3 EURO-4 44 Use of CNG as a motor fuel in CIS countriesUse of CNG as a motor fuel in CIS countries - Russia: about 70 000 motor vehicles are operated on CNG (during Soviet time – about 200 000); - Ukraine: 100 000 motor vehicles (1.5% of the fleet) are operated on CNG; - Moldova: about 5 000 motor vehicles are CNG-fueled; - Belarus: there is a national programme of gasification of the country’s vehicle fleet; - Tajikistan: there are 10 600 motor vehicles operated on CNG; - Kyrgyzstan: CNG-fuelled motor vehicles numbered about 6 000 in 2007; - Georgia: Ministry of Environment reported about 1.7% of motor vehicles using CNG (2005); - Armenia: 1 394 vehicles are fueled by CNG (2007). 45 Production of bioProduction of bio--fuels in CIS countriesfuels in CIS countries - Russia: a National Programme for production of bio-fuels is currently being developed. (...) Dynamics of pollutant emissions by the Russian motor vehicle fleet Число граждан России, проживающих при опасных (выше ПДК) уровнях содержания в атмосферном воздухе основных загрязнителей, связ Направления решения проблемы перегруженности городских УДС Потенциал различных групп мер по снижению уровня загруженности УДС Актуальные меры по снижению нагрузки на городскую УДС Недостатки транспортного планирования российских городов Недостатки транспортного планирования в российских городах Опыт Москвы в повышении устойчивости городского транспорта Опыт Москвы в повышении устойчивости городского транспорта: легкое метро Опыт Москвы: обновление автобусного парка Технические аспекты обеспечения устойчивости городского транспорта Motor fleet structure by age in CIS countries (cars),% Motor fleet structure by age in CIS countries (buses),% Motor fleet structure by age in CIS countries (trucks and light duty),% Age structure of the Russian car fleet Motor vehicle production in the CIS Improvement of vehicle fleets’ environmental performance across CIS Improvement of vehicle fleets’ environmental performance across CIS Improvement of vehicle fleets’ environmental performance across CIS CIS countries where the use of leaded petrol is still not prohibited Schedule of introduction of environmental requirements to motor vehicles and fuels in Russia Schedule of introduction of environmental requirements to motor vehicles and fuels in Russia Russian car fleet structure by environmental class Russian truck fleet structure by environmental class Russian bus fleet structure by environmental class (2006) Fuel specifications in CIS countries Main environmental parameters of motor fuel in Russia Structure of petrol production in Russia, % Structure of Russian diesel fuel production (by sulfur content, %*) Structure of Russian diesel fuel production by sulfur content Euro IV diesel fuel retail by Lukoil “ECTO” petrol retail by Lukoil Use of CNG as a motor fuel in CIS countries Production of bio-fuels in CIS countries Recommendations of the Conference on Cleaner Fuels and Vehicles for Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia Steps recommended by the Conference on Cleaner Fuels and Vehicles Thanks for your attention!
Language:English
Score: 1266052.5 - https://unece.org/fileadmin/DA.../Presentations/06Donchenko.pdf
Data Source: un
Parcourir par ordre alphabétique Aromatisant Numéro JECFA Numéro CAS Numéro FEMA Ou rechercher les aromatisants en fonction de leur groupe structurel Alicyclic ketones, secondary alcohols and related esters Alicyclic primary alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters Alicyclic, alicyclic-fused and aromatic-fused ring lactones Aliphatic acyclic acetals Aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic alpha-diketones and related alpha-hydroxyketones Aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances Aliphatic acyclic diols, triols, and related agents Aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons Aliphatic and Aromatic Amines and Amides Aliphatic and aromatic ethers Aliphatic branched-chain unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids, and related esters Aliphatic di- and trienals and related alcohols, acids, and esters Aliphatic lactones Aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters and acetals Aliphatic, linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters Allyl esters Alphatic primary alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, acetals and esters contining additional oxygenated functional groups Amino acids and related substances Anthranilate derivatives Aromatic hydrocarbons Aromatic substituted secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters Benzyl derivatives Carvone and structurally related substances Cinnamyl derivatives Epoxides Esters derived from branched-chain terpenoid alcohols and aliphatic acyclic linear and branched-chain carboxylic acid Esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids Esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with branched-chain aliphatic acyclic acids Ethanol Ethyl esters Eugenol and related hydroxyallylbenzene derivatives Furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers Furfuryl alcohol and related substances Hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives Hydroxypropylbenzenes Ionones and structurally related substances Isoamyl alcohol & related esters Linear and branched-chain aliphatic unsaturated non-conjugated alcohols, aldehyde, acids and related esters Linear and branched-chain unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters Maltol and related substances Menthol and structurally related substances Methoxy- and methylenedioxy-substituted allylbenzene derivatives Miscellaneous Miscellaneous nitrogen- containing flavouring agents Monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols,ketones and related esters Phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters Phenol and phenol derivatives Phenylsubstituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters Pulegone and menthofuran Pyrazine derivatives Pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives Saturated aliphatic acyclic branced-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids Saturated aliphatic acyclic linear primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids Saturated aliphatic acyclic secondary alcohols, ketones, and related saturated and unsaturated esters Simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols Simple alphatic and aromatic sulfur compounds Sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds Sulfur-substituted furan derivatives used as flavouring agents Test group Tetrahydrofuran and furanone derivatives     Contactez-nous  |  Termes et conditions |  Alerte aux messages frauduleux © FAO, 2022
Language:English
Score: 1256468.6 - https://www.fao.org/food/food-...ic-advice/jecfa/jecfa-flav/fr/
Data Source: un
Rapidly growing use of private motor vehicles and of freight transport, limited space and inadequate infrastructure result in urban traffic congestion, lost time, wasted resources, polluted air and negative health impacts through emissions of sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide, volatile organic compounds and particulates, including black carbon. (...) Poor quality fuels, including fuels with high sulfur content, also contribute to poor performance and negative environmental impacts. Adding lead to fuel was banned in most countries after it was found to have serious implications for human health. Fuels with lower sulfur content, preferably below 50 ppm, are a prerequisite for the introduction of advanced emission control devices required to achieve current emission standards 1 .
Language:English
Score: 1254489.3 - https://www.un.org/esa/dsd/res...dfs/csd-18/csd18_2010_bp17.pdf
Data Source: un
Rapidly growing use of private motor vehicles and of freight transport, limited space and inadequate infrastructure result in urban traffic congestion, lost time, wasted 2 resources, polluted air and negative health impacts through emissions of sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide, volatile organic compounds and particulates, including black carbon. (...) Poor quality fuels, including fuels with high sulfur content, also contribute to poor performance and negative environmental impacts. Adding lead to fuel was banned in most countries after it was found to have serious implications for human health. Fuels with lower sulfur content, preferably below 50 ppm, are a prerequisite for the introduction of advanced emission control devices required to achieve current emission standards 1 .
Language:English
Score: 1254489.3 - https://www.un.org/esa/dsd/sus...clusions_UNForum_Korea2010.pdf
Data Source: un
CLARIFICATION AND UPDATING OF SOME ISSUES REGARDING FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS ADDRESSED IN THE GHS / TRANSMITTED BY THE EXPERT FROM GERMANY
It is however not yet validated for mixtures containing e.g. halogenated, sulfurous and/or phosphoric substances as well as reactive acrylates. (...) It is however not yet validated for mixtures containing halogenated, sulfurous, and/or phosphoric compounds as well as reactive acrylates. 4 If the calculated flash point is less than 5 °C greater than the relevant classification criterion, the calculation method may not be used and the flash point shall be determined experimentally.”. (...) The European version EN ISO is adopted as a national version in the European countries (this may easily be checked by visiting the websites of the respective national standardization bodies).
Language:English
Score: 1252052.5 - HTTP://DACCESS-ODS.UN.ORG/ACCE...ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/2007/11&LANG=E
Data Source: ods