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Ozone is a major factor in asthma morbidity and mortality, while nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide also can play a role in asthma, bronchial symptoms, lung inflammation and reduced lung function.   (...) It is produced from the burning of fossil fuels (coal and oil) and the smelting of mineral ores that contain sulfur. The main anthropogenic source of SO 2  is the burning of sulfur-containing fossil fuels for domestic heating, power generation and motor vehicles. (...) When SO 2  combines with water, it forms sulfuric acid; this is the main component of acid rain which is a cause of deforestation.  
Language:English
Score: 1250549.4 - https://www.who.int/news-room/...utdoor)-air-quality-and-health
Data Source: un
Ozone is a major factor in asthma morbidity and mortality, while nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide also can play a role in asthma, bronchial symptoms, lung inflammation and reduced lung function.   (...) It is produced from the burning of fossil fuels (coal and oil) and the smelting of mineral ores that contain sulfur. The main anthropogenic source of SO 2  is the burning of sulfur-containing fossil fuels for domestic heating, power generation and motor vehicles. (...) When SO 2  combines with water, it forms sulfuric acid; this is the main component of acid rain which is a cause of deforestation.  
Language:English
Score: 1250549.4 - https://www.who.int/en/news-ro...utdoor)-air-quality-and-health
Data Source: un
Life Cycle Analyses (LCA) Conclusions • Alternative aviation fuels from biomass offer substantial life- cycle GHG emissions reductions relative to conventional jet fuels • Land use change impacts from the use of biomass feedstocks (particularly food crops) could potentially increase life-cycle GHG emissions • Use of waste products and dedicated energy crops in the large- scale production of bio-jet fuel more feasible than food-based crops in terms of feedstock requirements • Next generation biomass feedstocks with high oil yields offer promise Next Steps for LCA • Explore the use of any additional feedstocks that could reduce GHG emissions • Examine overall sustainability of potential alternative jet fuel pathways to assess viability for large-scale production • Conduct detailed, specific analysis of land use change impacts in the use of biomass feedstocks for alternative jet fuel production • Develop an aviation-specific life-cycle analysis framework (including aircraft operation emissions analysis) • Conduct multiple but coordinated analyses, engage stakeholders, peer review results Aircraft operations produce emissions Emissions influence ambient concentrations Ambient concentrations influence human health Primary PM Secondary PM Fuel Sulfur Standard NOx Standard SN Standard Ozone HC Standard SOx NOx VOCs Health Incidences Regulations affect aircraft technology and operations Primary PM Impacts & Cost-Benefit Analyses (CBA) • Yearly health costs from aviation in the USA: ~ $0.8 billion, with ~90% due to Particulate Matter (PM) exposure • PM related to fuel sulfur dominates the PM related health cost (46% - 73%) FOA3 Health Costs: $767 million SOx Ammonium Sulfate 69% Nonvolatile Primary PM 5% Organics vPM 6% Ammonium Nitrate 20% Sulfates vPM 0% Aviation PM Impacts -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 20 05 U S$ x 1 09 fuel cost increase: $0.04/gal fuel cost increase: $0.07/gal NOISE LAQ CLIMATE CONSUMER SURPLUS PRODUCER SURPLUS NET IMPACT B ET TE R W O R SE -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 20 05 U S$ x 1 09 fuel cost increase: $0.04/gal fuel cost increase: $0.07/gal NOISE LAQ CLIMATE CONSUMER SURPLUS PRODUCER SURPLUS NET IMPACT B ET TE R B ET TE R W O R SE W O R SE Illustrative Cost-benefit Analysis of Fuel Desulphurization COST DATA AFTER: Energy Information Administration, The Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel: Effects on Prices and Supply, Washington, D.C.: U.S. (...) URL http://www.epa.gov/otaq/highway-diesel/regs/420f06064.htm Illustrative Analyses of Low Sulfur Impacts • Illustrative analyses show that U.S.-wide switch to alternative lower sulfur jet fuel would reduce annual health costs by ~$200 million and possibly be cost-beneficial, with uncertain climate impacts • CAAFI sponsors/stakeholders plan to pursue a more detailed study to assess the environmental, safety, maintenance and cost impacts of reduced sulfur jet fuel • Collaborating with Coordinating Research Council (CRC) – expect preliminary results by summer 2009 Next Steps for Low Sulfur CBA • Alternative fuels exist that could both reduce lifecycle CO2 and improve air quality • Need to do life cycle GHG and costs and benefits very carefully – getting this right is critical to progress • CAAFI environmental panel facilitating data collection and analyses to inform decisions • CAAFI environmental panel is engaged in interagency LCA tools and rules team.
Language:English
Score: 1244887.3 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...ments/WAAF-2009/28_Maurice.pdf
Data Source: un
Through the 1980s acid rain remained an issue, and in November 1990 further Clean Air Act Amendments were passed.2,3,7 Sulfur dioxide (SO2), released when fossil fuels containing sulfur are burned, is the main cause of acid rain. (...) At the end of the 1980s, the prices for rail transportation fell more than 75 per cent, extending the number of power plants that could afford to purchase low-sulfur coal. Population shifts to the western United States also promoted the use of low-sulfur coal. (...) These units were given allowances based on their previous emissions, but through a shift to low-sulfur coal, they were able to reduce emissions 20 to 30 per cent at low cost.7 Finally, reductions with respect to 1980 levels were also stimulated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, which imposed an SO2 reduction standard of 90 per cent on high-sulfur coal and 70 per cent on low-sulfur coal.
Language:English
Score: 1238654.4 - https://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/publications/esa99dp7.pdf
Data Source: un
Buscar por orden alfabético Aromatizante Número del JECFA Número del CAS Número de la FEMA O buscar aromatizantes por grupo Alicyclic ketones, secondary alcohols and related esters Alicyclic primary alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters Alicyclic, alicyclic-fused and aromatic-fused ring lactones Aliphatic acyclic acetals Aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic alpha-diketones and related alpha-hydroxyketones Aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances Aliphatic acyclic diols, triols, and related agents Aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons Aliphatic and Aromatic Amines and Amides Aliphatic and aromatic ethers Aliphatic branched-chain unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids, and related esters Aliphatic di- and trienals and related alcohols, acids, and esters Aliphatic lactones Aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters and acetals Aliphatic, linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters Allyl esters Alphatic primary alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, acetals and esters contining additional oxygenated functional groups Amino acids and related substances Anthranilate derivatives Aromatic hydrocarbons Aromatic substituted secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters Benzyl derivatives Carvone and structurally related substances Cinnamyl derivatives Epoxides Esters derived from branched-chain terpenoid alcohols and aliphatic acyclic linear and branched-chain carboxylic acid Esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids Esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with branched-chain aliphatic acyclic acids Ethanol Ethyl esters Eugenol and related hydroxyallylbenzene derivatives Furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers Furfuryl alcohol and related substances Hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives Hydroxypropylbenzenes Ionones and structurally related substances Isoamyl alcohol & related esters Linear and branched-chain aliphatic unsaturated non-conjugated alcohols, aldehyde, acids and related esters Linear and branched-chain unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters Maltol and related substances Menthol and structurally related substances Methoxy- and methylenedioxy-substituted allylbenzene derivatives Miscellaneous Miscellaneous nitrogen- containing flavouring agents Monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols,ketones and related esters Phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters Phenol and phenol derivatives Phenylsubstituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters Pulegone and menthofuran Pyrazine derivatives Pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives Saturated aliphatic acyclic branced-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids Saturated aliphatic acyclic linear primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids Saturated aliphatic acyclic secondary alcohols, ketones, and related saturated and unsaturated esters Simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols Simple alphatic and aromatic sulfur compounds Sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds Sulfur-substituted furan derivatives used as flavouring agents Test group Tetrahydrofuran and furanone derivatives     Contacte con nosotros   |  Términos y Condiciones   |  Alerta de estafa © FAO, 2022
Language:English
Score: 1238495.7 - https://www.fao.org/food/food-...ic-advice/jecfa/jecfa-flav/es/
Data Source: un
They have intermediate properties and if not managed properly they can easily become sodic. The presence of a permanent or seasonal high water table is often a sign of saline or sodic soils. (...) Most soils range in pH from slightly less than 2.0 to slightly more than 11.0, although sulfuric acid forms and pH may decrease to below 2.0 when some naturally wet soils that contain sulfides are drained.
Language:English
Score: 1235523.4 - https://www.fao.org/soils-port...ted-soils/technical-issues/ru/
Data Source: un
They have intermediate properties and if not managed properly they can easily become sodic. The presence of a permanent or seasonal high water table is often a sign of saline or sodic soils. (...) Most soils range in pH from slightly less than 2.0 to slightly more than 11.0, although sulfuric acid forms and pH may decrease to below 2.0 when some naturally wet soils that contain sulfides are drained.
Language:English
Score: 1235523.4 - https://www.fao.org/soils-port...ted-soils/technical-issues/ar/
Data Source: un
They have intermediate properties and if not managed properly they can easily become sodic. The presence of a permanent or seasonal high water table is often a sign of saline or sodic soils. (...) Most soils range in pH from slightly less than 2.0 to slightly more than 11.0, although sulfuric acid forms and pH may decrease to below 2.0 when some naturally wet soils that contain sulfides are drained.
Language:English
Score: 1235523.4 - https://www.fao.org/soils-port...ted-soils/technical-issues/es/
Data Source: un
They have intermediate properties and if not managed properly they can easily become sodic. The presence of a permanent or seasonal high water table is often a sign of saline or sodic soils. (...) Most soils range in pH from slightly less than 2.0 to slightly more than 11.0, although sulfuric acid forms and pH may decrease to below 2.0 when some naturally wet soils that contain sulfides are drained.
Language:English
Score: 1235523.4 - https://www.fao.org/soils-port...ted-soils/technical-issues/zh/
Data Source: un
They have intermediate properties and if not managed properly they can easily become sodic. The presence of a permanent or seasonal high water table is often a sign of saline or sodic soils. (...) Most soils range in pH from slightly less than 2.0 to slightly more than 11.0, although sulfuric acid forms and pH may decrease to below 2.0 when some naturally wet soils that contain sulfides are drained.
Language:English
Score: 1235523.4 - https://www.fao.org/soils-port...ted-soils/technical-issues/en/
Data Source: un