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They have intermediate properties and if not managed properly they can easily become sodic. The presence of a permanent or seasonal high water table is often a sign of saline or sodic soils. (...) Most soils range in pH from slightly less than 2.0 to slightly more than 11.0, although sulfuric acid forms and pH may decrease to below 2.0 when some naturally wet soils that contain sulfides are drained.
Language:English
Score: 1235523.4 - https://www.fao.org/soils-port...ted-soils/technical-issues/fr/
Data Source: un
LETTER DATED 26 OCTOBER 2017 FROM THE SECRETARY-GENERAL ADDRESSED TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL
On the basis of the foregoing, the Leadership Panel is confident that ISIL is responsible for the use of sulfur mustard at Umm Hawsh on 15 and 16 September 2016. (...) Supported by the results of laboratory analyses, the Fact-Finding Mission determined that that mortar shell contained sulfur mustard. II. Investigation by the Mechanism 2. (...) The incident leading to the exposure of the victims to sulfur mustard has been determined to have occurred at a house in Umm Hawsh at approximately 1500 to 1600 hours on Thursday, 15 September 2016.
Language:English
Score: 1231972.3 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc.../get?open&DS=S/2017/904&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
Other major emissions are nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur oxides (SOx) and soot. Contrary to CO2, the other gases have shorter atmospheric residence times, and therefore remain concentrated to flight routes. (...) Phase out of lead in gasoline and reduction of sulfur in diesel fuel received increased attention. (...) It requires that by 1993 at latest, Parties reduce their annual sulfur emissions on their transboundary fluxes by at least 30%, using 1980 levels as a basis.
Language:English
Score: 1231954.1 - https://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/csd/csd9_bp15.pdf
Data Source: un
GUIDANCE IN RELATION TO MERCURY EMISSIONS (ARTICLE 8) REFERRED TO IN PARAGRAPHS 8 (A) AND 8 (B)
Wet ESPs are commonly used to remove liquid droplets such as sulfuric acid mist from industrial process gas streams. (...) Elemental mercury absorption can be improved by the addition of sulfur compounds or activated carbon to the scrubber liquor (Miller et al., 2014). Precipitation is another measure often used to remove oxidized mercury in scrubbing waters. Sulfur compounds can serve as a flocculation agent, added to the scrubbing water to convert soluble mercury efficiently into an insoluble compound.
Language:English
Score: 1229458.4 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...open&DS=UNEP/MC/COP.1/7&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
REPORT OF THE GROUP OF TECHNICAL EXPERTS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF GUIDANCE REQUIRED UNDER ARTICLE 8 OF THE CONVENTION: DRAFT GUIDANCE ON BEST AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES AND BEST ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICES
Wet ESPs are commonly used to remove liquid droplets such as sulfuric acid mist from industrial process gas streams. (...) Elemental mercury absorption can be improved by the addition of sulfur compounds or activated carbon to the scrubber liquor (Miller et al., 2014). Precipitation is another measure often used to remove oxidized mercury in scrubbing waters. Sulfur compounds can serve as a flocculation agent, added to the scrubbing water to convert soluble mercury efficiently into an insoluble compound.
Language:English
Score: 1227743 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...(DTIE)/HG/INC.7/6/ADD.1&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
MIT: The Future of Coal 4 Base Design Conditions for Generation Technologies • New greenfield unit • Emissions controlled to below today’s best demonstrated performance • Illinois # 6 high-sulfur bituminous coal • Used Carnegie-Mellon model for consistent design comparisons • Costs based on 2000 to 2004 detailed design costs; indexed to 2007 $ with process construction cost index • Integrated existing commercial technology • Single-condition indicative cost comparisons done; coal type, site, location, etc. will affect cost numbers • Important issue is comparison among technologies w/o and w CO2 capture MIT: The Future of Coal 5 Advanced PC Power Plant MIT: The Future of Coal 6 The New Generation of Power Plants Neideraussem Lignite-fired Power Plant, 965 MWe (net), 43.3% (HHV) MIT: The Future of Coal 7 PC Power Plant Schematic Combustion Block Flue Gas Treatment Steam Cycle Block Coal Air Flue Gas T=149 C O2 = 5% CO2 = 11% Steam 500 MW Stack Gas T = 55 C MIT: The Future of Coal 8 PC Thermal Efficiencies • Sub-Critical Unit • Operation to 1025 oF and 3200 psi • 33 to 37 % (HHV) • Supercritical Unit • Typical operation 1050 oF and 3530 psi • 37 to 42 % (HHV) • Ultra-Supercritical Unit • Typical 1110-1140 oF and 4650 psi • 42 to 45 % (HHV) MIT: The Future of Coal 9 PC Plant with Amine-Based CO2 Capture Combustion Block Upgraded FGD Steam Cycle Block Coal Air Flue Gas T=149 C Steam 500 MWe Stack Gas CO2 Capture CO2 Compression CO2 • Generating efficiency is 29.3% for new supercritical plant with CO2-capture; down from 38.5 % for supercritical no-capture plant; a 9.2 percentage point drop. • To maintain constant electrical output requires 32% increase in coal consumption Let-down turbine LP steam 11% CO2 MIT: The Future of Coal 10 Oxygen-Driven Power Generation Issue: Low flue-gas CO2 concentration due to high nitrogen dilution causes large impact of capture • Solution: Substitute oxygen for air eliminating the nitrogen dilution, compress flue gas directly [Oxy-fuel PC combustion] • Solution: Gasify the coal and remove the CO2 at high pressure [IGCC] MIT: The Future of Coal 11 Oxy-Fuel PC Generation/Capture Combustion Block ESP Steam Cycle Block Coal Air Flue Gas Steam 500 kW Stack Gas Air Separation Unit CO 2 Purification/ Compression O 2 N 2 Recycle Gas Combustion Block ESP & FGD Steam Cycle Block Coal Air Flue Gas Steam 500 MWe Stack Gas Air Separation Unit CO22 Purification/ Compression O22 N 2 Recycle Gas Supercritical CO2 to Sequestration N2 • Of interest only for CO2 capture for sequestration • Addresses the issue of high energy costs for capture and recovery • Requires air separation unit and associated energy usage MIT: The Future of Coal 12 Oxy-Fuel PC Generation/Capture • Current Status – Active pilot-scale development – Vattenfall planned new 30 MWth CO2-free coal steam plant with 2008 start-up in Germany – Hamilton, Ohio planning 25 MWe 1963 power boiler retrofit, 2009 start-up • Oxy-Fuel PC shows potential of lower COE and lower CO2 avoided cost than other PC capture technologies MIT: The Future of Coal 13 IGCC Plant 162110 - GJS/CE-01/1-23-02 Coal Syngas Quench Gasifier Slag/Fines Steam Sulfur Removal Cryogenic Oxygen Particulate Removal Mercury Removal Steam 7FA Combustion Turbine Steam Turbine HRSGAir Electricity Stack Water Solids Pure Sulfur • Gasifier type is biggest variable: • Texaco & E Gas: slurry feed & higher pressure, ~39% efficiency potential • Shell: dry feed and lower pressure, more costly, ~41% efficiency potential Power Block MIT: The Future of Coal 14 IGCC without and with CO2 Capture Air Air ASU ASU O2 O2 Gasifier Gasifier Coal Coal Slag Slag Gas Clean Up Gas Clean Up Shift CC Power Block CC Power Block POWER H2 Sulfur CO2 POWER Sulfur W/O CO2 Capture With CO2 Capture The Shift reaction converts CO to CO2 & hydrogen; the CO2 is then removed.
Language:English
Score: 1227108.5 - https://www.un.org/esa/sustdev...papers/katzer_presentation.pdf
Data Source: un
ASSESSMENT REPORT ON AMMONIA
Ammonia emissions were reduced much less in the past few decades compared to other pollutants such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Ammonia is the dominant source of excess nitrogen deposition on vulnerable ecosystems. (...) The formation of secondary particles can be reduced via emission reduction of either nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide or of ammonia, or both. For the formation of a particle of ammonium nitrate in the air, one molecule of ammonia and one molecule of nitrate (or nitric acid) are needed (while two molecules of ammonia will react with one molecule of sulfuric acid to form a particle of ammonium sulfate). Due to decreasing availability of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide, the share of the ammonia emission that is converted into secondary aerosols is decreasing.
Language:English
Score: 1224406.8 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...=ECE/EB.AIR/WG.5/2021/7&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
ASSESSMENT REPORT ON AMMONIA
Ammonia emissions were reduced much less in the past few decades compared to other pollutants such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Ammonia is the dominant source of excess nitrogen deposition on vulnerable ecosystems. (...) The formation of secondary particles can be reduced via emission reduction of either nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide or of ammonia, or both. For the formation of a particle of ammonium nitrate in the air, one molecule of ammonia and one molecule of nitrate (or nitric acid) are needed (while two molecules of ammonia will react with one molecule of sulfuric acid to form a particle of ammonium sulfate). Due to decreasing availability of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide, the share of the ammonia emission that is converted into secondary aerosols is decreasing.
Language:English
Score: 1224406.8 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...en&DS=ECE/EB.AIR/2021/7&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
Both ISIL and Syrian Government responsible for use of chemical weapons, UN Security Council told | | UN News Skip to main content Welcome to the United Nations Toggle navigation Language: العربية 中文 English Français Русский Español Português Kiswahili Other Hindi हिंदी Global UN News Global perspective Human stories Search the United Nations Search Advanced Search Home Africa Americas Asia Pacific Middle East Europe UN Art and Gifts History Corner Topics Peace and Security Economic Development Humanitarian Aid Climate and Environment Human Rights UN Affairs Women Law and Crime Prevention Health Culture and Education SDGs Migrants and Refugees In depth Interviews Features Photo Stories News in Brief The Lid is On UN Gender Focus UN and Africa UN Podcasts Secretary-General Spokesperson All Statements Selected Speeches Press Encounters Official Travels Media UN Video UN Photo Meeting Coverage Media Accreditation Webtv Home Africa Americas Asia Pacific Middle East Europe UN Art and Gifts History Corner Topics Peace and Security Economic Development Humanitarian Aid Climate and Environment Human Rights UN Affairs Women Law and Crime Prevention Health Culture and Education SDGs Migrants and Refugees In depth Interviews Features Photo Stories News in Brief The Lid is On UN Gender Focus UN and Africa UN Podcasts Secretary-General Spokesperson All Statements Selected Speeches Press Encounters Official Travels Media UN Video UN Photo Meeting Coverage Media Accreditation Webtv   Subscribe Audio Hub Both ISIL and Syrian Government responsible for use of chemical weapons, UN Security Council told UN Photo/Cia Pak Edmond Mulet, Head of the Security Council Joint Investigative Mechanism on Chemical Weapon, briefs the Council. 7 November 2017 The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL/Da’esh) was responsible for using sulfur mustard in a September 2016 attack in Umm Hawsh and the Syrian Government was accountable for the release of sarin in an April 2017 attack in Khan Shaykhun, the head of a Security Council -mandated investigation said Tuesday. (...) As for the 15-16 September 2016 incident, two women were found to have been exposed to sulfur mustard at Umm Hawsh, he said. A mortar shell containing sulfur mustard hit the house of one of the victims and a second shell containing the chemical agent was recovered lodged in the pavement. Based on the positioning of ISIL and the forensic assessment that the mortar shell came from the direction of areas held by that group, the panel is confident that ISIL was responsible for the use of the mortar shells containing sulfur mustard. As for the 4 April incident involving sarin, it killed around 100 people in Khan Shaykhun.
Language:English
Score: 1211963.4 - https://news.un.org/en/story/2...e-chemical-weapons-un-security
Data Source: un
. • Low fuel quality: diesel sulfur levels are around 4.500 ppm at a national level. (...) ADDITIONAL BENEFITS • 601 ton of SO2 (Sulfur dioxide). • The positive economic impact in the health sector has been calculated to US$229,662,000 as a consequence of the reduction of 33.353 ton of local pollutants. (...) Aimed at increasing the quality of 80% of the gasoline and diesel consumed in Colombia: less sulfur and higher hydrogen. – Enlargement and optimization of production at the Cartagena refinery.
Language:English
Score: 1211963.4 - https://www.un.org/esa/sustdev...07/presentations/S51_ortiz.pdf
Data Source: un