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Particulate  matter,  ozone,   nitrogen  dioxide  and  sulfur  dioxide.  WHO  Regional  Office  for  Europe,  2005.   2.2)    Issue       2.3)    International  agreements  and  targets       4     • target   values   for   the   protection   of   human   health   (fixed   levels   to   be   attained  where   possible)  for  O3,  PM2.5,  arsenic,  cadmium,  nickel  and  benzo(a)pyrene,2   • alert  thresholds  (fixed  levels    beyond  which  there  is  a  risk  to  human  health  from  brief   exposure)  for  SO2,  NO2  and  O3,   • critical   levels   (fixed   levels   above   which   direct   adverse   effects   may   occur   on   some   receptors,   such  as   trees,  other  plants  or  natural  ecosystems  but  not  on  humans)   for   SO2  and  NOX,   • long-­‐term   objective   (fixed   level   to   be   attained   in   the   long   term,   save   where   not   achievable   through   proportionate   measures   with   the   aim   of   providing   effective   protection  of  human  health  and  the  environment)  for  O3 (...) Particulate  matter,  ozone,  nitrogen  dioxide   and   sulfur   dioxide.   WHO   Regional   Office   for   Europe,   2005:   http://www.euro.who.int/en/what-­‐we-­‐do/health-­‐topics/environment-­‐and-­‐health/air-­‐ quality/publications/pre2009/air-­‐quality-­‐guidelines. (...) -­‐particulate-­‐ matter,-­‐ozone,-­‐nitrogen-­‐dioxide-­‐and-­‐sulfur-­‐dioxide;     • Guidelines  for  Developing  National  Strategies  to  Use  Air  and  Water  Quality  Monitoring   as   Environmental   Policy   Tools.  
Language:English
Score: 1044302.7 - https://unece.org/DAM/env/euro...ng/Indicators/A-2-en-final.pdf
Data Source: un
. - Outstanding Interagency Cooperation throughout Addressing Alternatives Challenge - Priorities Team • South African Airways, All Engine OEM’s • Airbus, Shell, Rolls Royce (A380) • Boeing Flight programs – - Virgin/ GE - New Zealand / RR - Continental / CFMI - Japan Airlines / P&W • UOP/ Jet Blue / Airbus / IAE • RR / British Airways Multiple Teams Addressing Development in Flight Fuel Type Coal to Liquid (CTL – 100% Sasol) Gas to Liquid (GTL) Biojet (various types) Algae Biojet (various types) Timing 05’ – 08’ 04/08 Defstan Certification 01/08 Flight 02/08’ – 02/09’ flights Formed Mid – 08’ Formed Mid – 08’ ASTM Approvals – CAAFI Targeted* Certification Timing FUEL TYPE - 50% FT Synjet blends including biomass/ coal / gas - 100% FT Synjet including biomass - 50% HRJ Synjet Blend - Pure HRJ Synjet including Algae - Other Biofuel processes YEAR • 2008,9 • 2010 • 2013 STATUS - ASTM approval targeted by June 09’ - Rapid Adjudication process with producers/ OEM’s / USAF - Supporting low sulfur cost/benefit starting 4/08 - Working with ASTM, FAA and engine/aircraft OEMS - DARPA program complete. Fuels available for FFP tests - DARPA Algae program sourcing imminent. * Generic Targets based upon outcomes to date anticipated fuel availability for tests 2008 2015 2025 1.00 (Relative CO2 increase) growth (no improvement) carbon neutral growth w/ alternate fuels w/ aircraft technology w/ operational improvements Challenge: Reducing Aviation’s Carbon Footprint 1.50 Challenge: Reduce Aviation Environmental Footprint Growing demand … …sulfur is precursor to PM 2.5 driven capacity constraints …controllable with alternative fuels Data for 50 Largest U.S. (...) ~2X Note: Not to scale TA F G row th Ra tio s, Hig he r Ra te TAF Gro wth Rati os, L owe r Rate 2014 Time •2.4x •3x HC CO NOx SOx + 75% + 70% + 90% + 85% 2X Change Preliminary Analyses of Emissions Growth for NexGen Scenarios … a growing footprint Challenge: Air Quality (PM2.5) Gains Needed CAAFI Approach to Environmental Challenges • EPA/DOE/USAF “Rules & Tools” Roundtable • FAA Aircraft Emissions Algorithms • 8+ Process Specific Case Studies form bounds • Fully Peer Reviewed For GreenHouse Gas LCA -12% -13% -33% -41% -57% -68% -78% -25% -30% -50% -61% -75% -86% -92% -51% -96%-100% -75% -50% -25% 0% 12.5 25 37.5 50 62.5 75 87.5 100 % Volume of FT Fuel in JP-8 % C ha ng e in P ar tic le N um be r D en si ty Cruise Idle 12.5 25 37.5 50 62.5 75 87.5 100 y For PM 2.5 Formation • USAF and FAA Particle Measurements • FAA/CRC low sulfur studies • TRB / ACRP Cost/Benefit Handbook for Airports • FAA EDMS Tools F-T fuel plant (CO2 capture and use with biomass) Future bio-jet fuel process 50%-100% Addressed Deployment - 20 end users - 26 Energy suppliers - Aviation specific production and distribution roadmaps • Fisher Tropsch economics • USAF/CAAFI Biofuels advisory process 0%-50% (Increasing % over time) * Graphics, David L.
Language:English
Score: 1044302.7 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...cuments/WAAF-2009/5_Altman.pdf
Data Source: un
DEFINITION AND LIST / TRANSMITTED BY THE EXPERT FROM THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
SUBSTANCE LC50 LCLo NOTE V (20EEC) (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) NOTE RTECS** UN 1828 Sulfur chloride (mono) 327 -- C 8950 WS4300 UN 1829 Sulfur trioxide, inhibited 347 -- C 98700 WT4830 Sulfur trioxide, stabilized UN 1831 Sulfuric acid, fuming (=,30% free SO3) 347 -- R =,3470 WS5605 UN 1163 Dimethylhydrazine, unsymmetrical 504 -- R* 206000 25EC MV2450 UN 1510 Tetranitromethane 36 -- R* 11000 PB4025 UN 2474 Thiophosgene -- -- 1 150000 XN2450 UN 1838 Titanium tetrachloride 119 -- R* 12800 XR1925 UN 2692 Boron tribromide -- -- 1 73700 ED7400 UN 1560 Arsenic trichloride -- 56 R*m 11500 CG1750 UN 1722 Allyl chloroformate 61 -- C 20400 LQ5775 UN 2334 Allylamine 590 -- R* 261000 BA5425 UN 1098 Allyl alcohol 253 -- R* 26000 BA5075 UN 1541 Acetone cyanohydrin, stabilized -- 126 R* 13200 OD9275 UN 2438 Trimethylacetyl chloride 507 -- C 35500 AO7200 UN 2442 Trichloroacetyl chloride 128 -- R* 22700 A07140 KEY (FOR BOTH LISTS) ** RTECS numbers are given here without the three additional zeros that appear in the nin-position sequence number 1 These materials are considered to be toxic by inhalation although no inhalation data are available. 14 These materials are considered to be toxic by inhalation although no inhalation data or V data are available.
Language:English
Score: 1042977.7 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/1998/29&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
Firewood and coal are used considerably in the rural areas (about 40 % of cooking energy), provoking indoor pollution through the release of particles of smoke, soot and chemical pollutants rich in carbon monoxide and sulfur composites respectively. There is a great gap of knowledge at the national level. (...) Cape Verde is seeking partnerships to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide and sulfur composites provoked by its fleet of vehicles.
Language:English
Score: 1042107.1 - https://sdgs.un.org/statements/cape-verde-10125
Data Source: un
However, in order to combat humaninduced air pollution, we converted to lead-free gasoline and now we executing a program to reduce sulfur in fuels by 95%. In addition, further policy measures have been taken including: stricter application of existing air emission standards and widening their scope to govern all polluting activities; strengthening the enforcement of environmental codes and standards and making them more effective; improving vehicle inspection for harmful emissions lead to further improvement in air quality. (...) In this regard, it is essential to reduce the levels of sulfur and lead in diesel and gasoline fuels and other oil products consumed in the local market.
Language:English
Score: 1042107.1 - https://sdgs.un.org/es/node/8785
Data Source: un
However, in order to combat humaninduced air pollution, we converted to lead-free gasoline and now we executing a program to reduce sulfur in fuels by 95%. In addition, further policy measures have been taken including: stricter application of existing air emission standards and widening their scope to govern all polluting activities; strengthening the enforcement of environmental codes and standards and making them more effective; improving vehicle inspection for harmful emissions lead to further improvement in air quality. (...) In this regard, it is essential to reduce the levels of sulfur and lead in diesel and gasoline fuels and other oil products consumed in the local market.
Language:English
Score: 1042107.1 - https://sdgs.un.org/fr/node/8785
Data Source: un
However, in order to combat humaninduced air pollution, we converted to lead-free gasoline and now we executing a program to reduce sulfur in fuels by 95%. In addition, further policy measures have been taken including: stricter application of existing air emission standards and widening their scope to govern all polluting activities; strengthening the enforcement of environmental codes and standards and making them more effective; improving vehicle inspection for harmful emissions lead to further improvement in air quality. (...) In this regard, it is essential to reduce the levels of sulfur and lead in diesel and gasoline fuels and other oil products consumed in the local market.
Language:English
Score: 1042107.1 - https://sdgs.un.org/ru/node/8785
Data Source: un
However, in order to combat humaninduced air pollution, we converted to lead-free gasoline and now we executing a program to reduce sulfur in fuels by 95%. In addition, further policy measures have been taken including: stricter application of existing air emission standards and widening their scope to govern all polluting activities; strengthening the enforcement of environmental codes and standards and making them more effective; improving vehicle inspection for harmful emissions lead to further improvement in air quality. (...) In this regard, it is essential to reduce the levels of sulfur and lead in diesel and gasoline fuels and other oil products consumed in the local market.
Language:English
Score: 1042107.1 - https://sdgs.un.org/ar/node/8785
Data Source: un
INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL LEGAL AND REGULATORY CONTEXT T H E C H A L L E N G E S T O I M P L E M E N T I N G S D G 1 4 NATIONAL  Three Branches of Government  Legislative  Executive/Enforcement  Judicial NATIONAL  Pros:  Enforcement is possible  Can review decisions with an independent judiciary  Cons:  Need strong Political will for many conservation measures  Limited scope and range NATIONAL INTERNATIONAL  Limited governance bodies  Legislative  Executive  Judicial IMO  UN Body that regulates shipping  Goal: Universally adopted and implemented regulations creating a level playing field for global shipping IMO  Legislation  Underlying treaties: SOLAS, MARPOL  Executive  Port State Controls  Flag State Controls  Enforcement/Judicial IMO  2020 Fuel Standard  Lowering allowable sulfur content in fuel to .5% worldwide  Enforcement authority resides with flag states  4 proposed solutions  Provide for Port State enforcement  Potential Loss of Insurance coverage  Enlist large retailers/social pressure  Ban carriage of non compliant fuel ICCAT  Regional Fishery Management Organization for Atlantic Highly Migratory species  Makes scientific recommendations on catch levels  Plenary Body not bound by scientific recommendations ICCAT  Legislation  ICCAT treaty  Limited Enforcement Authority  Trade sanctions are authorized  Social Pressure  Give swordfish a break campaign IWC  International Body to Regulate the Harvest of Whales  Original intent was to manage global harvest of whales  1982 instituted a global moratorium on whaling  Was meant to be a temporary moratorium  Allows for subsistence and scientific harvest IWC  Iceland left the IWC in 1992  Objected to the non temporary nature of the moratorium  Iceland rejoins IWC in 2002  Holds a reservation that does not recognize the moratorium  Other members of IWC voted to allow Iceland back in with the reservation IWC  US Pelly amendment  Allows the US to certify a country that is not complying with conservation measures of an international agreement  US may ban the importation of fish and wildlife products from a certified country  Vigilante Enforcement  Sea Shepherd and Greenpeace QUESTIONS?
Language:English
Score: 1041084.8 - https://unece.org/fileadmin/DA...ing/D1-7_Andrew_Minkiewicz.pdf
Data Source: un
TRANSPORT OF DANGEROUS GOODS : RECOMMENDATIONS CONCERNING THE CLASSIFICATION, LISTING AND LABELLING OF DANGEROUS GOODS AND SHIPPING PAPERS FOR SUCH GOODS / RECOMMENDATIONS PREPARED BY THE UNITED NATIONS COMMITTEE OF EXPERTS OF THE TRANSPORT OF DANGEROUS GOODS
They simply represent a framework broad and flexible enough to allow those regulations to be easily fitted into it and so develop, while complying with the special requirements they have to meet. (...) Dibutyl Ether (Butyl Ether) Dichloroethylene 1 : 2-Dichloroethane (Ethylene Dichloride) Alcool isobutylique Alcool butylique tertiaire Acetate de butyle Butyraldéhyde (aldéhyde butylique) Huile de camphre Sulfure de carbone (bisulfure de carbone) Ciment adhésif contenant un liquide inflammable et ayant un point d'éclair inférieur à 65,60c. ( 150° F .) (...) Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol) I 2-Ethoxyethanol (Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether) 2-Ethoxyethyl Acetate (Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether Acetate) Ethyl Acetate Ethyl Alcohol (See "Ethanol") Ethylhenzene Ethylhutyl Acetate Ethyl Butyrate Ethyl Chloroacetate Ethyl Chloroformate (Ethyl Chloro-carhonate) Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether 1,2-Diéthoxyéthane (Voir éther diéthylique de l'éthylène glycol) Diéthylamine Ether éthylique, éther anesthé­ sique, éther sulfurique Diisobutylcétone Ether isopropylique Diméthylamine (solution) Sulfure de méthyle Siccatifs, peintures ou vernis (liquides) Essences, de point d’éclair inférieur à б5,б°С. (150°F.)
Language:English
Score: 1038945 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...f/get?open&DS=ST/ECA/43&Lang=E
Data Source: ods