REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE RIGHT TO EDUCATION, VERNOR MUNOZ : ADDENDUM
The enrolment system
(i) Types of education
(a) Compulsory basic education
16. There are three levels: preschool, primary and secondary.
17. Preschool education is for children in the 3-5 age group. (...) At the preschool and primary levels, children who do not attend
general schools may enrol in the indigenous or community systems.
23. (...) Special education is for persons with disabilities and is designed to help them to be
able eventually to enrol in normal schools at the appropriate level. The service can be
provided for children from 45 days after birth (in the form of initial education), for older
children (preschool and primary levels) and for adolescents and young people up to age 22
(secondary education and vocational training).
REPORT OF THE INDEPENDENT EXPERT ON MINORITY ISSUES, GAY MCDOUGALL : ADDENDUM
The independent expert was provided with extensive access to
senior Government officials at both the national and provincial levels, whom she thanks for
their time and information. (...) Poverty is being reduced most effectively in urban areas where economic growth
levels are high, while it persists in rural areas. (...) Students demonstrated
higher levels of confidence in their learning activities when learning in their mother tongues,
improved communications skills and improved skills in the Vietnamese language.
REPORT OF THE WORKING GROUP OF EXPERTS ON PEOPLE OF AFRICAN DESCENT ON ITS MISSION TO THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA : NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
The Working Group also regrets that it was not possible
to meet with all of the high-level state and local-level authorities, as had been requested.
(...) While state attorneys general and state civil rights commissions have a key role in
combating Afrophobia and racial discrimination at the state level, the Working Group
perceived disparities in the commitment levels and capacities of those institutions to
implement state civil rights legislation.
(...) The Working Group is deeply concerned at the alarming levels of police brutality
and excessive use of lethal force by law enforcement officials, committed with impunity
against people of African descent in the United States.
REPORT OF THE INDEPENDENT EXPERT ON THE EFFECTS OF FOREIGN DEBT AND OTHER RELATED INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL OBLIGATIONS OF STATES ON THE FULL ENJOYMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS, PARTICULARLY ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS, JUAN BOHOSLAVSKY - MISSION TO ICELAND
The Committee also recommended that the levels of social
benefits be monitored regularly and adjusted according to the cost of living, and that efforts
to combat poverty and social exclusion, in particular of families with children, single-parent
families and persons with disabilities be strengthened. (...) While unemployment in Iceland increased to about 10 per cent in 2009 and 2010, it
never reached the unprecedented levels seen in other European countries trapped in a debt
crisis. (...) Municipalities apply different eligibility criteria, so that applicants enjoy
different levels of benefits depending on their place of residence, and the differences cannot
always be justified by disparities in local living costs.
REPORT OF THE WORKING GROUP OF EXPERTS ON PEOPLE OF AFRICAN DESCENT ON ITS 14TH SESSION : ADDENDUM
that many of the bodies, particularly at State and municipal levels, are lacking sufficient
financial and human resources to carry out their activities. (...) At middle level, only 7.7 per cent of Afro-Brazilians were educated in
private schools and 20.3 per cent of white students.28
34. (...) This has fed
into a culture of racial profiling at all levels of the justice system. The Special Rapporteur
on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment found that most
victims of torture in Brazilian prisons were Afro-Brazilians.
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE HUMAN RIGHTS TO SAFE DRINKING WATER AND SANITATION ON HIS MISSION TO PORTUGAL :NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
The water sector in Portugal is organized into two main levels. The first level, “em
alta” or “bulk”, includes the activities of water abstraction, treatment and storage, as well as
wastewater treatment and disposal. (...) For instance, the Empresa
Portuguesa das Águas Livres, a State-owned service provider, operates at the bulk level in
the greater Lisbon area and both at the bulk and retail levels in the city of Lisbon.15
2. (...) In
one of the sites visited, local authorities explained that the municipality refused to join the
bulk-level service provider and were proud of managing a municipal service for water and
sanitation, both at the bulk and the retail levels.
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE RIGHT OF EVERYONE TO THE ENJOYMENT OF THE HIGHEST ATTAINABLE STANDARD OF PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH ON HIS MISSION TO INDONESIA
The collapse of military rule in 1998, during the Asian financial crisis, triggered
important reforms at various levels, including a decentralization process.
6. (...) Indonesia has mixed public-private provision of health-care services, with the public
sector playing the dominant role, especially in rural areas and for secondary levels of care.
Public health-care provision is decentralized to the district level within the framework of
law No. 23 (2014), which established that both central and regional governments must
allocate funding for the provision of health services.9 Nonetheless, the central Government
remains the dominant source of overall financing of the health sector, but district
governments have discretion over how budgets are allocated and how much gets spent on
health.10 Physical access to health services in Indonesia is considered adequate, although
there are shortages in the number of, and uneven distribution of, health professionals.
30. (...) It also outlines
provisions on the formulation of follow-up laws and implementing regulations at the
provincial and local levels, including Presidential and Ministry of Social Affairs
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE SITUATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENDERS ON HIS MISSION TO MEXICO
Despite some progress, the level of violence in Mexico remains alarmingly high,
affecting the population at large. (...) Coordination between the
office and local investigative prosecutors at the federal and state levels appears to be weak
and marred by inefficiency and overlap. (...) Despite the legislative achievements to date, actually accessing public information
remains challenging, particularly at the state and municipal levels. Human rights defenders
fighting impunity also face challenges in accessing public information in the possession of
the armed forces.
THE RIGHT TO FOOD :REPORT : ADDENDUM / BY THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE RIGHT TO FOOD, JEAN ZIEGLER, SUBMITTED IN ACCORDANCE WITH COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS RESOLUTION 2000/10
Poverty and misery contribute to high levels of urban
criminality. Many poor young men end up in prison, some driven to petty crime or involvement
with the drug mafias. (...) More than 80 per cent of families in rural
areas and 10 per cent of families in urban areas still do not have permanent access to clean, safe
drinking water.14 Poverty and hunger in Brazil is also predominantly black.15 Over 45 per cent
of the population define themselves as black or Afro-Brazilian, and
many black groups are now challenging the “myth” of Brazil’s “racial democracy”. The
level of poverty for blacks is double that for whites, black illiteracy levels are two and a
half times that of white illiteracy and the difference in incomes is vast - blacks earn on
average only 42 per cent of a white salary. (...) Brazil also has unusually high levels of poverty and hunger compared to other countries with
a similar GNP.
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, ITS CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES, YAKIN ERTÜRK :ADDENDUM
Although much has since
been achieved, the machista culture is still a dominant social paradigm causing and perpetuating
high levels of violence against women.2
9. The machista culture relegates women to a subordinate role in their family and
community. (...) The Special Rapporteur
must stress that human rights obligations exist for all levels of Government - federal, state and
local - even though criminal justice functions are mainly exercised by State and local authorities.
(...) Most vulnerable groups of women
26. While the levels of violence against women in Mexico are generally high, migrant
and indigenous women, who systematically lack access to justice, are particularly vulnerable.