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The issue (3/3) • Telecom/ICT regulators have seen their mandate expand: – Broadcasting – Information technology – Electronic content – Cybersecurity – Data protection – Data privacy – Environmental issues Background (1/6) • Ex ante regulation has been common – In particular for state-owned monopolies – But also for incumbents • Based on the assumption that some infrastructure is a natural monopoly – In particular the last mile Background (2/6) • Ex post regulation based on competition law is an alternative – But traditionally considered to be less effective – Access obligations are the most common form – As are imposed interconnection prices • The basic idea is to favor competition for services Background (3/6) • Traditionally it was easy to know who to regulate: – Services were tied to a specific network technology (e.g fixed voice, mobile voice, national calls) – An operator’s share of a market was essentially its share of a specific network technology • The best pro-competitive measure was typically an interconnection obligation at wholesale prices – The main issue being the tradeoff between low prices and investment incentives Background (4/6) • The success of deregulation has made the situation more complicated – Should ex ante controls be removed? (...) • The links between services and network technologies are no longer clear – A converged regulatory framework might be required – For example, voice rules apply also to VOIP Background (5/6) • Different types of networks can now compete with each other • Bundled offers (triple play) are common • Flat rate is common • Need to invest in network infrastructure • Infrastructure may become a commodity Background (6/6) • Defining markets, and who has market power, is harder • Market power might be abused in areas that were not traditionally regulated – Proprietary payment systems – Exclusive distribution of content • Markets change rapidly, which may make regulations obsolete • There may be a need to focus: – More on promoting investment in infrastructure – Less on promoting access to existing infrastructure Global ICT developments, 2000 – 2011 11 Average Broadband Speeds (Mpbs) 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Global 9 12 16 21 27 34 Asia Pacific 8 11 15 21 28 36 Latin America 4 5 7 8 10 12 North America 11 14 18 23 29 37 West Europe 11 14 18 24 32 42 C and E Europe 9 12 15 19 24 29 Mid East & Africa 3 4 5 6 7 8 Source: CISCO VNI, 2012 Some trends Global consumer internet traffic per application Percent of the minimum wage paid for wired broadband Source: BDT Study on international Internet connectivity in Sub-Saharan Africa Possible actions for governments • Develop a broadband policy framework • Optimize use of the international bandwidth – Promote use of national ccTLD – Enable/favor implementation of IXPs – Promote development of local content • Liberalize international access points and access to submarine cables • Promote investments to increase infrastructure Possible actions for operators • Offer local products, based on national ccTDs • Use IXPs/invest to create IXPs • Invest in infrastructure • Negotiate to lower cost of international connectivity Conclusions • Broadband is a key infrastructure • To be addressed by a broadband policy framework • Involving a number of policy considerations • In particular: – Ensuring investment in infrastructure – Fair return on investments – Affordable prices for consumers For more information • http://www.itu.int/ITU- D/treg/Events/Seminars/GSR/GSR12/docu ments/GSR12_BBReport_Koboldt_SMP_8. pdf • http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/finance/work- cost-tariffs/events/tariff-seminars/Geneva- IIC/Agenda.htm http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg/Events/Seminars/GSR/GSR12/documents/GSR12_BBReport_Koboldt_SMP_8.pdf http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg/Events/Seminars/GSR/GSR12/documents/GSR12_BBReport_Koboldt_SMP_8.pdf http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg/Events/Seminars/GSR/GSR12/documents/GSR12_BBReport_Koboldt_SMP_8.pdf http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg/Events/Seminars/GSR/GSR12/documents/GSR12_BBReport_Koboldt_SMP_8.pdf http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/finance/work-cost-tariffs/events/tariff-seminars/Geneva-IIC/Agenda.htm http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/finance/work-cost-tariffs/events/tariff-seminars/Geneva-IIC/Agenda.htm http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/finance/work-cost-tariffs/events/tariff-seminars/Geneva-IIC/Agenda.htm Session 3: Regulation in a converged broadband world The issue (1/3) The issue (2/3) The issue (3/3) Background (1/6) Background (2/6) Background (3/6) Background (4/6) Background (5/6) Background (6/6) Global ICT developments, 2000 – 2011 Average Broadband Speeds (Mpbs) Some trends Global consumer internet traffic per application Slide Number 15 Percent of the minimum wage paid for wired broadband Possible actions for governments Possible actions for operators Conclusions For more information
Language:English
Score: 750407.3 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/fina...s/Session3_Regulation_Hill.pdf
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BACKGROUND ● Art. 38 → States obliged: notification of differences with Standards [→ States urged: notify differences to RPs] ─ traditionally, paper-based → ICAO mandated to notify States ─ traditionally, paper-based 9 May 2013 Page 4 1.
Language:English
Score: 745789.4 - https://www.icao.int/NACC/Docu...13/FALWORKSHOP2013/FAL-P13.pdf
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The mode of transport used in a given situation is influenced by, among other things: the product type and value, the location of the market, food safety requirements and other standards to be met, and the prevailing socio-economic conditions and transport infrastructure and services available. Traditionally processed fish products are carried in baskets as head loads or on bicycles across national borders, while frozen blue fin tuna is flown by chartered air craft. Although there is a diverse range of transport scenarios, key causes of food loss and waste (FLW) include: delays due to mechanical breakdown poor weather conditions causing quality deterioration lack of ice or lack of cold chain during transport physical damage due to poor handling and rough transport, such as poor road conditions accidents (e.g. boat capsize) rain soaking traditionally processed products inadequate water quality or oxygen levels during live fish transport Loss Scenarios Live Fish & Shellfish Transport Live fish transport is used to transfer aquaculture products, high value fin-fish from wild capture fisheries, crustaceans and molluscs from production holding facility to retailer or restaurant.   
Language:English
Score: 745789.4 - https://www.fao.org/flw-in-fis...chainsvalue-chaintransport/ar/
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FAO wildlife expert Douglas Williamson said that bushmeat traditionally made an important contribution to human nutrition in some 61 countries, where rural people obtained at least 20 percent of their animal protein from wild animals. (...) Meat from wild animals that was traditionally used by forest communities for their own consumption was now being collected for sale in urban areas, including cities with huge populations.
Language:English
Score: 745789.4 - https://www.fao.org/waicent/oi..._ne/PRESSENG/2001/pren0114.htm
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The operational practice of DPI traditionally includes the coverage of those issues that are common for the whole humanity and are high on the UN agenda. (...) Russian students are traditionally proactive participants in the Global Model UN. (...) We are grateful to the DPI for the assistance in arranging meetings of students with the UN Secretariat, and the traditionally warm welcome that our students receive here.
Language:English
Score: 744835.25 - https://www.un.org/en/ga/coi/34/statements/russia.shtml
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Where is Viet Nam in the world in terms of labour laws development? Traditionally, Viet Nam has a very extensive system of laws on paper. (...) Underground work in mines was traditionally closed for women, the ILO has had an international standard prohibiting such work since 1935 and Viet Nam has still ratified that standard. (...) It has been good for women, it has been good for economic growth, and it has been good for the cohesion also of the society as all these mining communities were traditionally remote and exclusively populated by men.
Language:English
Score: 744835.25 - https://www.ilo.org/hanoi/Info...WCMS_721938/lang--en/index.htm
Data Source: un
The mode of transport used in a given situation is influenced by, among other things: the product type and value, the location of the market, food safety requirements and other standards to be met, and the prevailing socio-economic conditions and transport infrastructure and services available. Traditionally processed fish products are carried in baskets as head loads or on bicycles across national borders, while frozen blue fin tuna is flown by chartered air craft. Although there is a diverse range of transport scenarios, key causes of food loss and waste (FLW) include: delays due to mechanical breakdown poor weather conditions causing quality deterioration lack of ice or lack of cold chain during transport physical damage due to poor handling and rough transport, such as poor road conditions accidents (e.g. boat capsize) rain soaking traditionally processed products inadequate water quality or oxygen levels during live fish transport Loss Scenarios Live Fish & Shellfish Transport Live fish transport is used to transfer aquaculture products, high value fin-fish from wild capture fisheries, crustaceans and molluscs from production holding facility to retailer or restaurant.   
Language:English
Score: 738031.4 - https://www.fao.org/flw-in-fis...chainsvalue-chaintransport/ru/
Data Source: un
The centre of city life orientates around the bazaar, where mosques, baths, caravanserais and schools were traditionally built right alongside the merchant stalls, making it truly the centre of civic life. (...) Indeed, Yazd’s impressive Friday Mosque was erected on the site of a large Zoroastrian fire temple, and there still stand the ancient towers outside the city where Zoroastrians traditionally leave the bodies of their dead. The Silk Roads on the Map Country profile Iran (Islamic Republic of) Capital: Tehran Region: Asia and the Pacific Related Information Route: Land This platform has been developed and maintained with the support of: Azerbaijan China Germany Kazakhstan Oman Contact UNESCO Headquarters 7 Place de Fontenoy 75007 Paris, France Social and Human Sciences Sector Research, Policy and Foresight Section Silk Roads Programme silkroads@unesco.org Follow us UNESCO applies a zero tolerance policy against all forms of harassment WWW.UNESCO.ORG Disclaimer of Use Privacy Policy Terms of use Staff
Language:English
Score: 730433.1 - https://en.unesco.org/silkroad/content/yazd
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Search Close Search UNICEF Fulltext search Max Page Tackling challenges female startup founders face UNICEF Innovation Fund Smart Investing: Master Class Series At its core, the UNICEF Innovation Fund is designed to work with -- and provide solutions for -- traditionally underserved markets and people. 2 years in, we've honored this commitment in geography, subject matter, and technology. (...) This master class brings to the fore a group of role models in the venture and tech spaces, speaks to the experience of many women entrepreneurs to have to shrink to fit criteria set for traditionally male-dominated spaces, and provides strategies for early-stage entrepreneurs to lead and grow their business to the next stage.
Language:English
Score: 730433.1 - https://www.unicef.org/innovation/smartinvestingMASTERCLASS
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We need to bring far more diverse voices to the table, particularly from developing countries and traditionally marginalised groups, such as women, youth, indigenous people, rural populations and older people. (...) This will require policy frameworks that directly support economic and social inclusion, special efforts to bring traditionally marginalised groups to the fore, important investments in both human capital and infrastructure, smart regulatory environments, and significant efforts to assist workers facing disruption from technology’s impact on their livelihoods. (...) Moreover, special efforts are needed to ensure inclusive participation by women and other traditionally marginalised groups in all new or updated methods of global digital cooperation.
Language:English
Score: 729517.87 - https://www.un.org/en/pdfs/HLP...cutive%20Summary%20-%20ENG.pdf
Data Source: un