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UNCTAD XIII ROUND TABLE 4, ADDRESSING PERSISTENT AND EMERGING DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES : AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO PROMOTING STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATION : ISSUES NOTE / PREPARED BY THE UNCTAD SECRETARIAT
Structural transformation occurs through a complex socio-economic process which is not automatic. (...) Successful structural transformation requires reliable and stable access to energy. (...) How can developing countries best finance their transport infrastructure needs in order to achieve structural transformation? 5. How can countries promote wider energy access and an appropriate and efficient energy mix for structural transformation?
Language:English
Score: 439699.95 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce....nsf/get?open&DS=TD/458&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
Virtual forum on "The Role of Standards in Accelerating Digital Transformation for Cities and Communities" Committed to connecting the world Search for: ITU General Secretariat Radiocommunication Standardization About ITU-T Events All Groups Standards Resources BSG Study Groups Regional Presence Join ITU-T Development ITU Telecom Members' Zone Join ITU Virtual forum on "The Role of Standards in Accelerating Digital Transformation for Cities and Communities" Rollup Image You are here ITU > Home > ITU-T > ITU-T and Climate Change > Virtual forum on "The Role of Standards in Accelerating Digital Transformation for Cities and Communities" Share Page Content 10 ​​​​​​​​​​​​​ The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) organized the Virtual Forum on “The Role of Standards in Accelerating Digital Transformation for Cities and Communities" . This forum took place virtually from 13h30-16h00 CEST on 23 April 2021 .  ​Recognizing the transformative potential of digital technologies and the urgency to develop a shared vision on digital transformation, the objective of this virtual forum was to explore the role of international standards and good practices for developing, driving and accelerating digital transformation in cities and communities. (...) Enabling a city-wide digital transformation requires understanding the needs of all stakeholders, spanning consumers, corporates, SMEs, and policymakers.
Language:English
Score: 439677.54 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/c...matechange/Pages/20210422.aspx
Data Source: un
Otherwise ( transform_size_flag equals zero), the existing 4x4 transform is used. Otherwise (the macroblock has at least one sub-partition smaller than 8x8), the existing 4x4 transform is used. 3.3 8x8 Transform The 2-D forward 8x8 transform is computed in a separable way as a 1-D horizontal (row) transform followed by a 1-D vertical (column) transform, where the corresponding 1-D transforms are given by the matrix 8 1 3 6 10 12 12 10 6 3 4 8 8 4 4 8 8 4 6 12 3 10 10 3 12 6 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 10 3 12 6 6 12 3 10 8 4 4 8 8 4 4 8 12 10 6 3 3 6 10 12 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 × ú ú ú ú ú ú ú ú ú ú ú û ù ê ê ê ê ê ê ê ê ê ê ê ë é - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - as proposed in [2]. (...) The number of operations required for the 8x8 2-D inverse transform of one 8x8 block is comparable to the number of operations required for performing the 2-D inverse transform of the corresponding four 4x4 blocks using a fast butterfly implementation of the existing 4x4 inverse transform [5]. (...) Gordon, “Simplified Use of 8x8 Transform”, Doc. JVT-I022, San Diego, Sept. 2003. [4] S.
Language:English
Score: 439538.13 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...te/2004_03_Munich/JVT-K028.doc
Data Source: un
Another solution could be to use a similar integer transform as for the 4x4 transform. The integer transform simplifies the exact definition of inverse transform. The present document gives information of a couple of possible integer 8 point transforms. Another issue in connection with the use of 8x8 transform, is the use of the ULVC of TML-1 for coefficient coding. (...) Since the same kinds of numbers as for the 4x4 transform are used, quantization and dequantization may be done very similarly to the 4x4 transform.
Language:English
Score: 439499.07 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...video-site/9910_Red/q15i39.doc
Data Source: un
In its preamble, the "Outcome Document" calls for bold and transformative steps which are urgently needed to shift the world onto a sustainable and resilient path, and it includes a number of goals that are of transformative nature. (...) But what does "transformative change" mean in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)? (...) A common characteristic of transformative approaches is that they challenge existing social norms and the distribution of power and resources.
Language:English
Score: 439497.75 - https://www.ifad.org/en/web/io...uating-transformational-change
Data Source: un
INDUSTRIALIZATION FOR INCLUSIVE AND TRANSFORMATIVE DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA
Nexus between industrialization, structural transformation and inclusiveness A. Promoting structural transformation and inclusiveness 25. (...) Nevertheless, the experiences of countries that have successfully transformed their economies suggest that inclusiveness or a narrowing of inequality is not an inevitable outcome of the transformation process. (...) The country’s industrialization and structural transformation depended on the system of export processing zones.
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Score: 439358.15 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...t?open&DS=E/ECA/CM/47/2&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
TRANSPORT OF TRANSFORMERS WITH GAS CYLINDERS
However, as the transformers are not gas- tight, low quantities of gas are constantly supplied through a pressure regulator from a gas cylinder connected to the transformer. So far, transformers have been transported by sea under UN 3363, Class 9. (...) A special provision should be assigned to UN 3538 laying down safety requirements for pressurizing transformers with gas. Pictures with examples of such transformers are included in the Annex.
Language:English
Score: 439355.6 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/2019/38&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
However, it is better to do inverse transform first for lowest possible dynamic precision during inverse transform computations. 6 2x2 chroma DC transform and quantization Forward transform Chroma DC transform is added on top of chroma transform. (...) Table 2 – Precision Luma and chroma transform and quantization Input bits Output bits Forward transform 9, 11, 13 15, 16, 16 Quantization 15, 16, 16 10, 12, 14 Dequantization 10, 12, 14 15, 17, 19 Inverse transform 15, 17, 19 9, 11, 13 Luma DC transform and quantization Input bits Output bits Transform 13, 15, 16 16, 16, 16 Quantization 16, 16, 16 12, 14, 16 Inverse transform 12, 14, 16 12, 14, 16 Dequantization 12, 14, 16 15, 17, 19 Chroma DC transform and quantization Input bits Output bits Transform 13, 15, 16 15, 16, 16 Quantization 15, 16, 16 11, 13, 15 Inverse transform 11, 13, 15 11, 13, 15 Dequantization 11, 13, 15 15, 17, 19 Since the propose transform can be implemented using only additions and shifts the multiplications are only used during quantization and de-quantization. (...) Table 3 – Encoder operations 4x4 transform for 24 4x4 luminace and chrominance blocks Process Operation Number per block 4x4 forward transform + 64 << 16 // 0,4 or 16 4x4 transform for one 4x4 luminace DC block Process Operation Number per block 4x4 forward transform + 64 // 16 2x2 transform for two 2x2 Chrominace DC blocks Process Operation Number per block 4x4 forward transform + 8 // 0 or 4 quantization for coefficient Process Operation Number per coefficient Quantization * 1 // 1 Table 4 – Decoder operations 4x4 inverse transform and dequantization for 24 4x4 luminace and chrominance blocks Process Operation Number per block Dequantization * 16 4x4 inverse transform + 64 >> 16 Normalization + 16 >> 4x4 inverse transform and dequantization for one 4x4 luminace DC block Process Operation Number per block 4x4 inverse transform + 64 Dequantization * 16 // 16 2x2 inverse transform and dequantization for two 2x2 Chrominace DC blocks Process Operation Number per block 2x2 inverse transform + 8 Dequantization * 4 // 4 8 Results The attached document contains results when the encoder is implemented to ensure only 16 bit multiplications for 9, 11 and 13 bit residual data.
Language:English
Score: 439298.2 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...e/2001_12_Pattaya/VCEG-O25.doc
Data Source: un
However, it is better to do inverse transform first for lowest possible dynamic precision during inverse transform computations. 6 2x2 chroma DC transform and quantization Forward transform Chroma DC transform is added on top of chroma transform. (...) Table 2 – Precision Luma and chroma transform and quantization Input bits Output bits Forward transform 9, 11, 13 15, 16, 16 Quantization 15, 16, 16 10, 12, 14 Dequantization 10, 12, 14 15, 17, 19 Inverse transform 15, 17, 19 9, 11, 13 Luma DC transform and quantization Input bits Output bits Transform 13, 15, 16 16, 16, 16 Quantization 16, 16, 16 12, 14, 16 Inverse transform 12, 14, 16 12, 14, 16 Dequantization 12, 14, 16 15, 17, 19 Chroma DC transform and quantization Input bits Output bits Transform 13, 15, 16 15, 16, 16 Quantization 15, 16, 16 11, 13, 15 Inverse transform 11, 13, 15 11, 13, 15 Dequantization 11, 13, 15 15, 17, 19 Since the propose transform can be implemented using only additions and shifts the multiplications are only used during quantization and de-quantization. (...) Table 3 – Encoder operations 4x4 transform for 24 4x4 luminace and chrominance blocks Process Operation Number per block 4x4 forward transform + 64 << 16 // 0,4 or 16 4x4 transform for one 4x4 luminace DC block Process Operation Number per block 4x4 forward transform + 64 // 16 2x2 transform for two 2x2 Chrominace DC blocks Process Operation Number per block 4x4 forward transform + 8 // 0 or 4 quantization for coefficient Process Operation Number per coefficient Quantization * 1 // 1 Table 4 – Decoder operations 4x4 inverse transform and dequantization for 24 4x4 luminace and chrominance blocks Process Operation Number per block Dequantization * 16 4x4 inverse transform + 64 >> 16 Normalization + 16 >> 4x4 inverse transform and dequantization for one 4x4 luminace DC block Process Operation Number per block 4x4 inverse transform + 64 Dequantization * 16 // 16 2x2 inverse transform and dequantization for two 2x2 Chrominace DC blocks Process Operation Number per block 2x2 inverse transform + 8 Dequantization * 4 // 4 8 Results The attached document contains results when the encoder is implemented to ensure only 16 bit multiplications for 9, 11 and 13 bit residual data.
Language:English
Score: 439298.2 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...2001_12_Pattaya/VCEG-O25r1.doc
Data Source: un
However, it is better to do inverse transform first for lowest possible dynamic precision during inverse transform computations. 6 2x2 chroma DC transform and quantization Forward transform Chroma DC transform is added on top of chroma transform. (...) Table 2 – Precision Luma and chroma transform and quantization Input bits Output bits Forward transform 9, 11, 13 15, 16, 16 Quantization 15, 16, 16 10, 12, 14 Dequantization 10, 12, 14 15, 17, 19 Inverse transform 15, 17, 19 9, 11, 13 Luma DC transform and quantization Input bits Output bits Transform 13, 15, 16 16, 16, 16 Quantization 16, 16, 16 12, 14, 16 Inverse transform 12, 14, 16 12, 14, 16 Dequantization 12, 14, 16 15, 17, 19 Chroma DC transform and quantization Input bits Output bits Transform 13, 15, 16 15, 16, 16 Quantization 15, 16, 16 11, 13, 15 Inverse transform 11, 13, 15 11, 13, 15 Dequantization 11, 13, 15 15, 17, 19 Since the propose transform can be implemented using only additions and shifts the multiplications are only used during quantization and de-quantization. (...) Table 3 – Encoder operations 4x4 transform for 24 4x4 luminace and chrominance blocks Process Operation Number per block 4x4 forward transform + 64 << 16 // 0,4 or 16 4x4 transform for one 4x4 luminace DC block Process Operation Number per block 4x4 forward transform + 64 // 16 2x2 transform for two 2x2 Chrominace DC blocks Process Operation Number per block 4x4 forward transform + 8 // 0 or 4 quantization for coefficient Process Operation Number per coefficient Quantization * 1 // 1 Table 4 – Decoder operations 4x4 inverse transform and dequantization for 24 4x4 luminace and chrominance blocks Process Operation Number per block Dequantization * 16 4x4 inverse transform + 64 >> 16 Normalization + 16 >> 4x4 inverse transform and dequantization for one 4x4 luminace DC block Process Operation Number per block 4x4 inverse transform + 64 Dequantization * 16 // 16 2x2 inverse transform and dequantization for two 2x2 Chrominace DC blocks Process Operation Number per block 2x2 inverse transform + 8 Dequantization * 4 // 4 8 Results The attached document contains results when the encoder is implemented to ensure only 16 bit multiplications for 9, 11 and 13 bit residual data.
Language:English
Score: 439298.2 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...deo-site/0112_Pat/VCEG-O25.doc
Data Source: un