UNCTAD XIII ROUND TABLE 4, ADDRESSING PERSISTENT AND EMERGING DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES : AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO PROMOTING STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATION : ISSUES NOTE / PREPARED BY THE UNCTAD SECRETARIAT
Structural transformation occurs through a complex socioeconomic process which
is not automatic. (...) Successful structural transformation requires reliable and stable access to energy.
(...) How can developing countries best finance their transport
infrastructure needs in order to achieve structural transformation?
5. How can countries promote wider energy access and an appropriate
and efficient energy mix for structural transformation?
Language:English
Score: 439699.95

daccessods.un.org/acce....nsf/get?open&DS=TD/458&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
Virtual forum on "The Role of Standards in Accelerating Digital Transformation for Cities and Communities"
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The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) organized the Virtual Forum on “The Role of Standards in Accelerating Digital Transformation for Cities and Communities" . This forum took place virtually from 13h3016h00 CEST on 23 April 2021 .
Recognizing the transformative potential of digital technologies and the urgency to develop a shared vision on digital transformation, the objective of this virtual forum was to explore the role of international standards and good practices for developing, driving and accelerating digital transformation in cities and communities. (...) Enabling a citywide digital transformation requires understanding the needs of all stakeholders, spanning consumers, corporates, SMEs, and policymakers.
Language:English
Score: 439677.54

https://www.itu.int/en/ITUT/c...matechange/Pages/20210422.aspx
Data Source: un
Otherwise ( transform_size_flag equals zero), the existing 4x4 transform is used.
Otherwise (the macroblock has at least one subpartition smaller than 8x8), the existing 4x4 transform is used.
3.3 8x8 Transform
The 2D forward 8x8 transform is computed in a separable way as a 1D horizontal (row) transform followed by a 1D vertical (column) transform, where the corresponding 1D transforms are given by the matrix
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as proposed in [2].
(...) The number of operations required for the 8x8 2D inverse transform of one 8x8 block is comparable to the number of operations required for performing the 2D inverse transform of the corresponding four 4x4 blocks using a fast butterfly implementation of the existing 4x4 inverse transform [5]. (...) Gordon, “Simplified Use of 8x8 Transform”, Doc. JVTI022, San Diego, Sept. 2003.
[4] S.
Language:English
Score: 439538.13

https://www.itu.int/wftp3/ava...te/2004_03_Munich/JVTK028.doc
Data Source: un
Another solution could be to use a similar integer transform as for the 4x4 transform. The integer transform simplifies the exact definition of inverse transform. The present document gives information of a couple of possible integer 8 point transforms.
Another issue in connection with the use of 8x8 transform, is the use of the ULVC of TML1 for coefficient coding. (...) Since the same kinds of numbers as for the 4x4 transform are used, quantization and dequantization may be done very similarly to the 4x4 transform.
Language:English
Score: 439499.07

https://www.itu.int/wftp3/ava...videosite/9910_Red/q15i39.doc
Data Source: un
In its preamble, the "Outcome Document" calls for bold and transformative steps which are urgently needed to shift the world onto a sustainable and resilient path, and it includes a number of goals that are of transformative nature. (...) But what does "transformative change" mean in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)?
(...) A common characteristic of transformative approaches is that they challenge existing social norms and the distribution of power and resources.
Language:English
Score: 439497.75

https://www.ifad.org/en/web/io...uatingtransformationalchange
Data Source: un
INDUSTRIALIZATION FOR INCLUSIVE AND TRANSFORMATIVE DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA
Nexus between industrialization, structural transformation and inclusiveness
A. Promoting structural transformation and inclusiveness
25. (...) Nevertheless, the experiences of countries that have successfully transformed their
economies suggest that inclusiveness or a narrowing of inequality is not an inevitable
outcome of the transformation process. (...) The
country’s industrialization and structural transformation depended on the system of export
processing zones.
Language:English
Score: 439358.15

https://daccessods.un.org/acc...t?open&DS=E/ECA/CM/47/2&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
TRANSPORT OF TRANSFORMERS WITH GAS CYLINDERS
However, as the transformers are not gas
tight, low quantities of gas are constantly supplied through a pressure regulator from a gas
cylinder connected to the transformer. So far, transformers have been transported by sea
under UN 3363, Class 9. (...) A special provision
should be assigned to UN 3538 laying down safety requirements for pressurizing
transformers with gas. Pictures with examples of such transformers are included in the
Annex.
Language:English
Score: 439355.6

https://daccessods.un.org/acc...ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/2019/38&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
However, it is better to do inverse transform first for lowest possible dynamic precision during inverse transform computations.
6 2x2 chroma DC transform and quantization
Forward transform
Chroma DC transform is added on top of chroma transform. (...) Table 2 – Precision
Luma and chroma transform and quantization
Input bits
Output bits
Forward transform
9, 11, 13
15, 16, 16
Quantization
15, 16, 16
10, 12, 14
Dequantization
10, 12, 14
15, 17, 19
Inverse transform
15, 17, 19
9, 11, 13
Luma DC transform and quantization
Input bits
Output bits
Transform
13, 15, 16
16, 16, 16
Quantization
16, 16, 16
12, 14, 16
Inverse transform
12, 14, 16
12, 14, 16
Dequantization
12, 14, 16
15, 17, 19
Chroma DC transform and quantization
Input bits
Output bits
Transform
13, 15, 16
15, 16, 16
Quantization
15, 16, 16
11, 13, 15
Inverse transform
11, 13, 15
11, 13, 15
Dequantization
11, 13, 15
15, 17, 19
Since the propose transform can be implemented using only additions and shifts the multiplications are only used during quantization and dequantization. (...) Table 3 – Encoder operations
4x4 transform for 24 4x4 luminace and chrominance blocks
Process
Operation
Number per block
4x4 forward transform
+
64
<<
16
//
0,4 or 16
4x4 transform for one 4x4 luminace DC block
Process
Operation
Number per block
4x4 forward transform
+
64
//
16
2x2 transform for two 2x2 Chrominace DC blocks
Process
Operation
Number per block
4x4 forward transform
+
8
//
0 or 4
quantization for coefficient
Process
Operation
Number per coefficient
Quantization
*
1
//
1
Table 4 – Decoder operations
4x4 inverse transform and dequantization for 24 4x4 luminace and chrominance blocks
Process
Operation
Number per block
Dequantization
*
16
4x4 inverse transform
+
64
>>
16
Normalization
+
16
>>
4x4 inverse transform and dequantization for one 4x4 luminace DC block
Process
Operation
Number per block
4x4 inverse transform
+
64
Dequantization
*
16
//
16
2x2 inverse transform and dequantization for two 2x2 Chrominace DC blocks
Process
Operation
Number per block
2x2 inverse transform
+
8
Dequantization
*
4
//
4
8 Results
The attached document contains results when the encoder is implemented to ensure only 16 bit multiplications for 9, 11 and 13 bit residual data.
Language:English
Score: 439298.2

https://www.itu.int/wftp3/ava...e/2001_12_Pattaya/VCEGO25.doc
Data Source: un
However, it is better to do inverse transform first for lowest possible dynamic precision during inverse transform computations.
6 2x2 chroma DC transform and quantization
Forward transform
Chroma DC transform is added on top of chroma transform. (...) Table 2 – Precision
Luma and chroma transform and quantization
Input bits
Output bits
Forward transform
9, 11, 13
15, 16, 16
Quantization
15, 16, 16
10, 12, 14
Dequantization
10, 12, 14
15, 17, 19
Inverse transform
15, 17, 19
9, 11, 13
Luma DC transform and quantization
Input bits
Output bits
Transform
13, 15, 16
16, 16, 16
Quantization
16, 16, 16
12, 14, 16
Inverse transform
12, 14, 16
12, 14, 16
Dequantization
12, 14, 16
15, 17, 19
Chroma DC transform and quantization
Input bits
Output bits
Transform
13, 15, 16
15, 16, 16
Quantization
15, 16, 16
11, 13, 15
Inverse transform
11, 13, 15
11, 13, 15
Dequantization
11, 13, 15
15, 17, 19
Since the propose transform can be implemented using only additions and shifts the multiplications are only used during quantization and dequantization. (...) Table 3 – Encoder operations
4x4 transform for 24 4x4 luminace and chrominance blocks
Process
Operation
Number per block
4x4 forward transform
+
64
<<
16
//
0,4 or 16
4x4 transform for one 4x4 luminace DC block
Process
Operation
Number per block
4x4 forward transform
+
64
//
16
2x2 transform for two 2x2 Chrominace DC blocks
Process
Operation
Number per block
4x4 forward transform
+
8
//
0 or 4
quantization for coefficient
Process
Operation
Number per coefficient
Quantization
*
1
//
1
Table 4 – Decoder operations
4x4 inverse transform and dequantization for 24 4x4 luminace and chrominance blocks
Process
Operation
Number per block
Dequantization
*
16
4x4 inverse transform
+
64
>>
16
Normalization
+
16
>>
4x4 inverse transform and dequantization for one 4x4 luminace DC block
Process
Operation
Number per block
4x4 inverse transform
+
64
Dequantization
*
16
//
16
2x2 inverse transform and dequantization for two 2x2 Chrominace DC blocks
Process
Operation
Number per block
2x2 inverse transform
+
8
Dequantization
*
4
//
4
8 Results
The attached document contains results when the encoder is implemented to ensure only 16 bit multiplications for 9, 11 and 13 bit residual data.
Language:English
Score: 439298.2

https://www.itu.int/wftp3/ava...2001_12_Pattaya/VCEGO25r1.doc
Data Source: un
However, it is better to do inverse transform first for lowest possible dynamic precision during inverse transform computations.
6 2x2 chroma DC transform and quantization
Forward transform
Chroma DC transform is added on top of chroma transform. (...) Table 2 – Precision
Luma and chroma transform and quantization
Input bits
Output bits
Forward transform
9, 11, 13
15, 16, 16
Quantization
15, 16, 16
10, 12, 14
Dequantization
10, 12, 14
15, 17, 19
Inverse transform
15, 17, 19
9, 11, 13
Luma DC transform and quantization
Input bits
Output bits
Transform
13, 15, 16
16, 16, 16
Quantization
16, 16, 16
12, 14, 16
Inverse transform
12, 14, 16
12, 14, 16
Dequantization
12, 14, 16
15, 17, 19
Chroma DC transform and quantization
Input bits
Output bits
Transform
13, 15, 16
15, 16, 16
Quantization
15, 16, 16
11, 13, 15
Inverse transform
11, 13, 15
11, 13, 15
Dequantization
11, 13, 15
15, 17, 19
Since the propose transform can be implemented using only additions and shifts the multiplications are only used during quantization and dequantization. (...) Table 3 – Encoder operations
4x4 transform for 24 4x4 luminace and chrominance blocks
Process
Operation
Number per block
4x4 forward transform
+
64
<<
16
//
0,4 or 16
4x4 transform for one 4x4 luminace DC block
Process
Operation
Number per block
4x4 forward transform
+
64
//
16
2x2 transform for two 2x2 Chrominace DC blocks
Process
Operation
Number per block
4x4 forward transform
+
8
//
0 or 4
quantization for coefficient
Process
Operation
Number per coefficient
Quantization
*
1
//
1
Table 4 – Decoder operations
4x4 inverse transform and dequantization for 24 4x4 luminace and chrominance blocks
Process
Operation
Number per block
Dequantization
*
16
4x4 inverse transform
+
64
>>
16
Normalization
+
16
>>
4x4 inverse transform and dequantization for one 4x4 luminace DC block
Process
Operation
Number per block
4x4 inverse transform
+
64
Dequantization
*
16
//
16
2x2 inverse transform and dequantization for two 2x2 Chrominace DC blocks
Process
Operation
Number per block
2x2 inverse transform
+
8
Dequantization
*
4
//
4
8 Results
The attached document contains results when the encoder is implemented to ensure only 16 bit multiplications for 9, 11 and 13 bit residual data.
Language:English
Score: 439298.2

https://www.itu.int/wftp3/ava...deosite/0112_Pat/VCEGO25.doc
Data Source: un