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Intergenerational Equity and Children’s Well-being INTERGENERATIONAL SOLIDARITY & INTER-GENERATIONAL TRANSMISSION OF POVERTY Dr. Martin Evans UNICEF Economic & Social Policy Analysis, HQ Research Associate: Center for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics mcevans@unicef.org 2 The Wellbeing of Future Generations is in part determined by our treatment of this generation of children UNICEF commissioned LSE Systematic Review of evidence on intergenerational transmission of poverty and well-being Identify proven (evidence-based) intergenerational transmission (IGT) mechanisms of poverty and well-being in both developed and less developed countries Demonstrated evidence of the roles of health, education and income 2 Health Mechanisms with demonstrated evidence of Inter-generational transmission Genetics Parental quality Income Maternal nutrition Mother’s education Maternal health knowledge Maternal stress 3 Evidence and studies for health Parenting variable Mechanism Country Maternal Genetics and physiology BMI Anemia status Mother's Birth weight Assortativ e mating US Parental behaviour (smoking) Teratogenesis Income (SES) Maternal stress Maternal stress US Income Maternal nutrition Household labor supply Family structure Residential mobility Health care Insurance Birth Weight Mother's Birth weight Cross- country US Uruguay Parenting variable Mechanism Country Maternal BMI Anemia status Maternal participation in literacy programs Health knowledge Ghana Income Health knowledge Nutritional Lev el of sanitation Cross- country Mexico Mortality Genetics and physiology 4 Education mechanisms with demonstrated evidence of inter-generational transmission Genetics Nurture Parental quality Income (Credit constraints) Maternal health knowledge Family structure 5 Evidence and studies for education 6 Type of Mechanism: Evidence-proven Suggested Refuted Evidence and studies for education (cont.) 7 Type of Mechanism: Evidence-proven Suggested Refuted What do the cross-country comparisons tell us? (...) Income is the crucial mediating factor in access to high quality health and education Income (mobility) mechanisms with demonstrated evidence of inter- generational transmission Cognitive and non-cognitive development Human capital Childhood nutrition and health Income and access to opportunity (but clear causal mechanisms are more difficult to isolate) 9 Final remarks 10 1.There are social and economic drivers of the well-being of future generations through proven mechanisms that operate on today’s children. 2.Future Generations are in part determined by our treatment of this generation of children. 3.So, any new framework or institution for intergenerational solidarity will have to build on established frameworks and institutions related to children’s rights and well being (e.g., CRC). INTERGENERATIONAL SOLIDARITY & INTER-GENERATIONAL TRANSMISSION OF POVERTY Slide Number 2 Slide Number 3 Slide Number 4 Slide Number 5 Slide Number 6 Slide Number 7 Slide Number 8 Slide Number 9 Slide Number 10
Language:English
Score: 806436.23 - https://sdgs.un.org/sites/defa...es/statements/3577capstone.pdf
Data Source: un
Botswana: First high-burden country to reach key milestone in elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission | Africa Renewal Skip to main content Get the free mobile apps Get the latest news from us on our apps.   (...) Botswana has achieved the “silver tier” status, which moves it closer to eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission. WHO awards this certification to countries which have brought the mother-to-child HIV transmission rate to under 5 %; provided antenatal care and antiretroviral treatment to more than 90 % of pregnant women; and achieved an HIV case rate of fewer than 500 per 100,000 live births. (...) Globally, 15 countries have been certified for eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission. None of them had an epidemic as large as Botswana.
Language:English
Score: 798094.24 - https://www.un.org/africarenew...each-key-milestone-elimination
Data Source: un
The citizens livelihood are fishermen, traders and moving workers for a long time and also the high number of nightclubs caused a high risk factor for HIV transmission, especially through sexual transmission. (...) On the other hand the public's understanding of HIV / AIDS is still not optimal, ranging from the modes of transmission, prevention and how to treat patients. HIV / AIDS transmission could be happened by a various ways, through sexual contact, blood contact, from mother to child through pregnancy and childbirth and breastfeeding. (...) Reduce the risk of transmission of HIV positive virus from pregnant mothers to babies through health education and a series of tests and treatment to HIV-positive pregnant women.   11.
Language:English
Score: 754950.2 - https://publicadministration.u...nProfilev2014/mid/1170/id/5023
Data Source: un
Media Accreditation & Liaison Unit Logistical support and information to members of the press العربية 中文 English Français Русский Español Media Accreditation & Liaison Unit Logistical support and information to members of the press Search Menu Home Media Alert UN WebTV Live Schedule UNTV News Pool Operation UNTV Transmission Guide Accreditation First Time Renewal Picking Up Badge Types of Accreditation Guidelines Upcoming Events Resources Media Documents Centre Media Resources Contact Us UNTV Transmission Guide UNTV feeds via fiber connect to two New York video hubs, Encompass Media and The Switch. (...) Encompass requires no less than 48 hours advance notice in order to coordinate customer set up, transmission services and resources. Most customers may be asked to pay by Credit Card in advance or at time of service. “the Switch” TEL.# (212) 227-9131 (Bookings) bookings@theswitch.tv , (212) 227-9191 (Network Operation Centre) noc@theswitch.tv , reservations@theswitch.tv   New clients should contact davidshearer@theswitch.tv You may inquire with the following organizations regarding their facilities for satellite television services/ live transmission services. APTN TEL. # 1 212 621 7420 – Global Media Services (GMS) bookings@ap.org REUTERS TV Help Desk in London: Phone: +44 20 7542 2244 EUROVISION TEL # (212) 265-3288 bookings@eurovision-us.net   INTELSAT TEL.# (404) 381-2900 Booking Department bookings@intelsat.com GLOBECAST TEL.# (310) 845-3939 America.booking@globecast.com BROADCAST QUALITY FILES are available, free of charge, by sending a request to: avlibrary@un.org For any other questions, please contact UNTV at 917 367-9231 or 914 393-1072 or 212 963-0128 untv@un.org or redi@un.org or kasper@un.org UN JOURNAL For Committees and other meetings, please refer to the UN JOURNAL UNTV UNTV News Pool Operations UNTV Transmission Guide UN Web TV Live Schedule Access Guidelines SPOKESPERSON'S OFFICE For interviews and media inquiries contact the Spokesperson's office : +1-212-963-7160 TWITTER Tweets by @UNMediaLiaison FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Q.
Language:English
Score: 754552.93 - https://www.un.org/en/media/accreditation/transmission.shtml
Data Source: un
The Registrar filed comments on 17 November 2014. d) “Motion for Transmission of Information Concerning an Incident on 2 December 2014 and Request for Interim Measures Regarding My Safety”, filed by Ms. (...) Rangel’s requests for interim relief are denied. Motion for Transmission of Important Information (Case No. 2014-611) 12. (...) Her motion is dismissed. Motion for Transmission of Information Concerning an Incident on 2 December 2014 and Request for Interim Measures Regarding My Safety (Case Nos. 2014-611 and 2014-674) 16.
Language:English
Score: 753065.43 - www.un.org/en/internalj...at/judgments/2015-UNAT-531.pdf
Data Source: oaj
1 USE OF MASKS FOR UN PERSONNEL IN NON-HEALTHCARE SETTINGS IN AREAS OF COVID-19 COMMUNITY TRANSMISSION 10 November 2020 Introduction This document provides guidance on the use of masks for UN personnel working in non-healthcare settings, and whose work requires close and frequent interaction with people whose infectious status is unknown1. (...) However, given a multitude of factors, the WHO has updated its guidance to advise that to prevent COVID-19 transmission effectively in areas of community transmission, governments should encourage the general public to wear masks in specific situations and settings as part of a comprehensive approach to supress transmission. (...) Droplets may also land on surfaces where the virus could remain viable; thus, the immediate environment of an infected individual can serve as a source of transmission (contact transmission). 7 https://www.who.int/publications-detail/advice-on-the-use-of-masks-in-the-community-during-home-care-and-in-healthcare-settings-in-the-context-of-the-novel-coronavirus- (2019-ncov)-outbreak 8 https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/coronavirus-disease-covid-19-masks https://www.who.int/publications-detail/advice-on-the-use-of-masks-in-the-community-during-home-care-and-in-healthcare-settings-in-the-context-of-the-novel-coronavirus-(2019-ncov)-outbreak https://www.who.int/publications-detail/advice-on-the-use-of-masks-in-the-community-during-home-care-and-in-healthcare-settings-in-the-context-of-the-novel-coronavirus-(2019-ncov)-outbreak https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/coronavirus-disease-covid-19-masks UNITED NATIONS | DEPARTMENT OF OPERATIONAL SUPPORT 3 Table 1: Recommended PPE and Masks By Work Activities in a Non-Healthcare Setting Category No.
Language:English
Score: 751433.2 - https://www.un.org/sites/un2.u...irus_ppeforwardfacingstaff.pdf
Data Source: un
sypli International Telecommunication Union Workshop on QoS and user-perceived transmission quality in evolving networks Dakar (Senegal), 18 - 19 October 2001 ITU-T Study Group 12 Migration from "Loss and Level" Migration from "Loss and Level" Planning towards "Delay and Planning towards "Delay and Impairment" PlanningImpairment" Planning Volker Sypli QoS Officer, Regulatory Authority for Telecommunications and Posts, Germany 2 Dakar (Senegal) 18 - 19 October 2001 Workshop on QoS and user-perceived transmission quality in evolving networks ITU-T Study Group 12 Transmission Planning (in general) The aim of transmission planning is to facilitate setting up networks o Identification of important transmission impairments o Guaranteeing adequate end-to-end speech transmission performance 3 Dakar (Senegal) 18 - 19 October 2001 Workshop on QoS and user-perceived transmission quality in evolving networks ITU-T Study Group 12 Transmission Planning Traditional Approach(1) Identification of important transmission impairments o Analysis of basic network segments o Allocation of limits for transmission impairments to specific segments 4 Dakar (Senegal) 18 - 19 October 2001 Workshop on QoS and user-perceived transmission quality in evolving networks ITU-T Study Group 12 Transmission Planning Traditional Approach (2) Main transmission impairments o Loudness rating, delay, noise, stability o Loss and level adjustments o Specific delay limits o Other impairments due to digital equipment not covered 5 Dakar (Senegal) 18 - 19 October 2001 Workshop on QoS and user-perceived transmission quality in evolving networks ITU-T Study Group 12 Transmission Planning Traditional Approach (3) Guaranteeing adequate end-to-end speech transmission performance o Allocation of limits o Limits/range of transmission impairments known for single parameters only o Combined effect of impairments not taken into account o Performance achieved by restriction to “best practice” limitation 6 Dakar (Senegal) 18 - 19 October 2001 Workshop on QoS and user-perceived transmission quality in evolving networks ITU-T Study Group 12 "Loss and Level" Planning 7 Dakar (Senegal) 18 - 19 October 2001 Workshop on QoS and user-perceived transmission quality in evolving networks ITU-T Study Group 12 New Implications to Transmission Planning (Overview) Traditional transmission planning is no longer feasible because of o Increased use of new components and technology o Convergence of fixed, mobile and IP networks o Effects of liberalization 8 Dakar (Senegal) 18 - 19 October 2001 Workshop on QoS and user-perceived transmission quality in evolving networks ITU-T Study Group 12 New Implications to Transmission Planning (1) Increased use of new components and technology o Digital circuit-switched networks o Packet-based networks o Low-bit rate codecs o Mobile and wireless sections 9 Dakar (Senegal) 18 - 19 October 2001 Workshop on QoS and user-perceived transmission quality in evolving networks ITU-T Study Group 12 New Implications to Transmission Planning (2) Convergence of fixed/mobile and circuit/packet-switched networks o New combinations and varieties to be considered • Cumulative transmission impairments • Network configurations/reference connections • Gateways and network interconnections 10 Dakar (Senegal) 18 - 19 October 2001 Workshop on QoS and user-perceived transmission quality in evolving networks ITU-T Study Group 12 New Implications to Transmission Planning (3) Effects of liberalization • "National systems" as currently described in G.101 do not exist anymore • National connections may be as complex as international ones • CNs may be even more complex as national networks • Uniform national transmission plan no longer enforceable 11 Dakar (Senegal) 18 - 19 October 2001 Workshop on QoS and user-perceived transmission quality in evolving networks ITU-T Study Group 12 Development of Transmission Impairments analogue networks Digital trans digital switching Electronic TE mobile packet voice VoIP Future Improved VoIP ??? >> Technological Progress >> >> I n cr ea si n g im p ai rm en ts >> packet dist. delay/echo noise coding dist. analogue dist. loss variation 12 Dakar (Senegal) 18 - 19 October 2001 Workshop on QoS and user-perceived transmission quality in evolving networks ITU-T Study Group 12 Conclusion (1) Transmission planning becomes more complex o More and different types of impairments due to digitalization o Convergence of networks with different types of transport media must be considered o Reference configurations must take into account a variety of scenarios for the same connection section 13 Dakar (Senegal) 18 - 19 October 2001 Workshop on QoS and user-perceived transmission quality in evolving networks ITU-T Study Group 12 Conclusion (2) o Allocation of fixed limits is not practical due to increased complexity o Consequently, combined effects of different transmission impairments must be analyzed o End-to-end performance is the result of simultaneous interworking of different technologies 14 Dakar (Senegal) 18 - 19 October 2001 Workshop on QoS and user-perceived transmission quality in evolving networks ITU-T Study Group 12 Reference Configurations Example PBX - A VoIP-Gateway IP-Switch ISDN ISDN IP ISDN - Telephone VoIP-Gateway IP PBX - B ISDN Location A Location B Analogue - Telephone a/b IP-Switch 35ms 100ms 65ms Coder DecoderRouting ca. 280-320ms 0ms 80-110ms see ITU-T G.114 for PLMS Public Switched Telephony Network GSM - Gobal System for Mobile Telephony IP Network MAN / WAN GSM - Handy 0ms 2-10ms (national) ca. 80-120ms 15 Dakar (Senegal) 18 - 19 October 2001 Workshop on QoS and user-perceived transmission quality in evolving networks ITU-T Study Group 12 New Approach (1) Assessing the end-to-end quality by one single value that takes into account all impairments simultaneously 5060708090100 T1211030-99 linear quality scale high quality medium quality low quality Area not recommended Overall Rating "R" 16 Dakar (Senegal) 18 - 19 October 2001 Workshop on QoS and user-perceived transmission quality in evolving networks ITU-T Study Group 12 New Approach (2) Allowing for transmission planning of different reference configurations 17 Dakar (Senegal) 18 - 19 October 2001 Workshop on QoS and user-perceived transmission quality in evolving networks ITU-T Study Group 12 New Approach (3) Transmission planning tool given by Recommendation G.107 (E-Model) 18 Dakar (Senegal) 18 - 19 October 2001 Workshop on QoS and user-perceived transmission quality in evolving networks ITU-T Study Group 12 Abbreviations o %GoB Percentage Good or Better o %PoW Percentage Poor or Worse o ANSI American National Standards Institute o CN Corporate Network o EC Echo Canceller o EIA Electronic Industries Alliance o ETSI European Telecommunications Standardization o EU European Union o Ie Equipment Impairment Factor o IP Internet Protocol o LSQ Listener Speech Quality o MOS Mean Opinion Score o OLR Overall Loudness Rating o OVR Overall Speech Quality Rating o PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network o QoS Quality of Service o R E-Model Rating o TCLw Terminal Coupling Loss (weighted) o TELR Talker Echo Loudness Rating o TIA Telecommunications Industry Association o TIPHON Telecommunications & Internet Protocol Harmonization Over Networks o WEPL Weighted Echo Path Loss
Language:English
Score: 748338.13 - https://www.itu.int/itudoc/itu-t/workshop/qos/s7p1.pdf
Data Source: un
At the same time, multi-path transmission control is required to take energy efficiency into consideration. (...) Multi-path transmission control can be initiated by either the user side or the network side. Connection information, access network performance parameters and policies are required to be sent to the related functional entity for performing multi-path transmission control. In order to complete the multi-path transmission control, the following enhancements are required to be supported in the multi-connection architecture: 1) MUE can optionally be enhanced for the multi-path transmission support, such as comprehensive path assessment, path status maintenance, adjustment decision and implementation (e.g., retransmission path selection, transmission rate adjustment, service separation/aggregation and sub-transmission flow mobility); 2) Multi-connection policy control function entity (MPC-FE) is required to support a specific multi-path transmission policy decision algorithm to provide adaptive decisions, such as decomposed service transmission adjustment and service separation decision.
Language:English
Score: 747620.9 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page298.html
Data Source: un
adler International Telecommunication Union Workshop on QoS and user-perceived transmission quality in evolving networks Dakar (Senegal), 18 - 19 October 2001 ITU-T Study Group 12 The EThe E--Model and its Applications Model and its Applications for Transmission Planningfor Transmission Planning Klemens P. (...) Adler QoS Manager, Mannesmann Mobilfunk, Germany 2 Dakar (Senegal) 18 - 19 October 2001 Workshop on QoS and user-perceived transmission quality in evolving networks ITU-T Study Group 12 Transmission Planning (TP): First Step (1) Nowadays, transmission planning is a different task and for each reference connection one needs to identify the following: o traditional parameter values characterizing a connection such as • loudness rating, delay, noise 3 Dakar (Senegal) 18 - 19 October 2001 Workshop on QoS and user-perceived transmission quality in evolving networks ITU-T Study Group 12 Transmission Planning: First Step (2) o Impacts due to modern equipment as low bit-rate codecs or packet based transmission systems which can be characterized by parameters such as • type of codec • impairments due to bad radio coverage • percentage of packet loss 4 Dakar (Senegal) 18 - 19 October 2001 Workshop on QoS and user-perceived transmission quality in evolving networks ITU-T Study Group 12 Basic Reference Configuration (Figure 17/G.108) T1211200-99 Tr SLRS RLRR OLR Nc T Ta qdu, Ie, A Pr DrDs Ps STMR TELR LSTR (LSTR = STMR + Dr) (SLRR) WEPL 0 dBr point Send side Receive side Connection quality as perceived at receive side 5 Dakar (Senegal) 18 - 19 October 2001 Workshop on QoS and user-perceived transmission quality in evolving networks ITU-T Study Group 12 The Common ITU-T Transmission Rating Model With the E-Model (Rec. (...) They are tied to the Ratings given by the transmission planning tool of Rec. G.107. This takes into account the combined effects of various transmission impairments.
Language:English
Score: 745222.85 - https://www.itu.int/itudoc/itu-t/workshop/qos/s7p2.pdf
Data Source: un
Considering the processing overhead, if only a single path can meet the requirements of the service, parallel transmission is unnecessary. A multi-path transmission can also be used for concurrent multi-service transmissions. (...) The multi-path transmission is required to be fair to the existing single-path transmission. To ensure fairness to a single-path transmission, multi-path transmission control is required to determine which sub-transmission flows share a point of congestion and which sub-transmission flows do not.
Language:English
Score: 744870.6 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page301.html
Data Source: un