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Link to full report below https://tupa.gtk.fi/raportti/arkisto/42_2021.pdf Link to 8 page summary https://mcusercontent.com/72459de8ffe7657f347608c49/files/be87ecb 0-46b0-9c31-886a- 6202ba5a9b63/Assessment_to_phase_out_fossil_fuels_Summary.pdf • Number of vehicles, by class • Number and size of batteries • An understanding of the EV to H2-Cell split • Estimates of EV & H2-Cell rail transport • Estimates of an EV & H2-Cell maritime shipping fleet • Estimates of phasing out of fossil fuel industrial applications • Examination of the feasibility of expanding the nuclear NPP fleet • Assessment of the feasibility of global scale biofuels • Plastics & fertilizer industries Using same energy mix as 2018, determine how many new non-fossil fuel power stations are needed Physical Tasks done industrially by fossil fuels Determine the true scope of useful work done Assemble non-fossil fuel systems that could do the same useful work Calculate the quantity of electrical power needed https://tupa.gtk.fi/raportti/arkisto/42_2021.pdf https://mcusercontent.com/72459de8ffe7657f347608c49/files/be87ecb0-46b0-9c31-886a-6202ba5a9b63/Assessment_to_phase_out_fossil_fuels_Summary.pdf UNFC and UNRMS | ENABLING SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLES IN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT  Existing ICE transport fleet size for the year 2018  Cars & Trucks  Rail  Maritime shipping  Aviation  What is the number and size of required batteries/hydrogen cells/solar panels/wind turbines  In what proportional mix?  In 2018, 84.5% of global primary energy consumption was fossil fuel based  Required power grid expansion to charge the needed number of batteries, and make hydrogen  Number of new power stations  Required power storage to manage intermittent supply Calculation Arc 3 Current plans are not large enough in scope, the task before us is much larger than the current paradigm allows for UNFC and UNRMS | ENABLING SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLES IN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT  The global fleet of vehicles is estimated to be 1.42 billion, which travelled an estimated 16 trillion km in the year 2018  0.7% is EV in 2020  For the same energy output:  …an Electric Vehicle system requires battery storage mass 3.2 times the fuel tank (@700bar) mass of a hydrogen H-Cell system  …meanwhile a hydrogen H-Cell system will require 2.5 times more electricity compared to a Electric Vehicle system  All short-range transport could be done by Electric Vehicle systems  All passenger cars, commercial vans, delivery trucks and buses (1.4 billion vehicles), would travel 14 trillion km in 365 days  This would require 65 TWh of batteries (282 million tonnes of Li-Ion batteries)  All long-range distance transport could be powered with a hydrogen fuel cells  All Class 8 HCV trucks, the rail transport network (including freight), and the maritime ship fleet  In total, 200 million tonnes of hydrogen would be needed annually Baseline Calculation 4 UNFC and UNRMS | ENABLING SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLES IN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Global System I 5 62 million Motorcycles 160 billion km 29 million Buses & Delivery Trucks 800 billion km 695 million Passenger Cars 5.4 trillion km 1 545 TWh 1 597 TWh 26 billion kWh 600 million Vans, Light Trucks 8 trillion km 2 988 TWh 1.4 billion Electric Vehicles Charging Batteries Building Heating Steel Manufacture Electrical Power Generation 17 100 TWh 2 800 TWh 57 TWh Industry ~ 6 100 TWh ~ 20 000 TWh EV Economy UNFC and UNRMS | ENABLING SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLES IN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Global System II 6 30 million Class 8 HCV Trucks Travelled 1.6 trillion km 130 million tonnes Maritime Shipping cargo 72 000 billion tonne-km 52 million tonnes 18.5 million tonnes Rail Transport 9 400 billion tkm freight 1 700 billion passenger-kilometers 7 500 TWh 1 100 TWh 3 000 TWh HydrogenH2-Cell Vehicles Manufacture of H2 200 m illion tonnes Hydrogen Economy Aviation Plastics Manufacture Biofuel ??? (...) Not the EV vehicles themselves or for other battery consumption like electronics. Conventional applications demand outside Li-Ion batteries not considered.
Language:English
Score: 1858815.4 - https://unece.org/sites/defaul...%20UNRWS-Simon%20Michaux_0.pdf
Data Source: un
The importance of batteries in the transportation sector As the battery energy density has soared and prices have dropped, the Li-ion battery has become the major source for the electrification of various sizes of vehicles such as bicycles, scooters, cars, buses, trucks, and even ferries.4 Shipping and aviation are also making electrification progress, though at the very infant stage. (...) Similarly, the electrification of larger trucks is mostly in urban environments. Electrification of long-distance buses and heavy freight trucks have been dismissed as too costly, as the energy density of Li-ion batteries is too low to compete with the range that conventional buses and trucks cover with a single refueling. Global sales of electric trucks remained low but, as battery technology is improving rapidly, long-distance buses and heavy trucks are forecast to become more competitive (Nykvist and Olsson, 2021).
Language:English
Score: 1822971.7 - https://www.un.org/development...or-a-fossil-fuel-free-economy/
Data Source: un
The shipment had flown from Los Angeles to Minneapolis and was to be DGP-WG/06-WP/27 - 6 - DATE BATTERY TYPE DEVICE (IF APPLICABLE) AIRCRAFT TYPE INCIDENT SUMMARY trucked to Clear Lake, WI. (...) DGP-WG/06-WP/27 - 8 - DATE BATTERY TYPE DEVICE (IF APPLICABLE) AIRCRAFT TYPE INCIDENT SUMMARY 25-OCT-2003 PowerSonic Nonspillable, Lead Acid gel-cell, 12- volt, 35 AMP hours Powered hand truck Passenger Powered hand truck accidentally switched on. (...) Package was located and had a burn hole on its side. Batteries apparently short- circuited. 26-FEB-2001 Wet nonspillable battery Portable welder Cargo After air transport and in route to final destination, UPS truck driver observed smoke coming from the trailer.
Language:English
Score: 1705838 - https://www.icao.int/safety/Da...f%20the%20Whole%2006/WP.27.pdf
Data Source: un
Encouraging alternatives to the use of trucks for long-haul freight 15 B. Encouraging alternatives to air travel 14 IV. (...) Decarbonising heavy freight trucks 17 C. Decarbonising aircraft, rail and shipping 18 V. (...) In Europe, 45 per cent of freight is moved by trucks, whereas 41 World Business Council for Sustainable Development (2004).
Language:English
Score: 1577161 - https://www.un.org/esa/dsd/res...sport-Hargroves-Weizsacker.pdf
Data Source: un
These entries include hybrid electric vehicles powered by both a fuel cell and an internal combustion engine with wet batteries, sodium batteries, lithium metal batteries or lithium ion batteries, transported with the battery(ies) installed. (...) These entries include hybrid electric vehicles powered by both an internal combustion engine and wet batteries, sodium batteries, lithium metal batteries or lithium ion batteries, transported with the battery(ies) installed. (...) Entry UN 3171 only applies to vehicles powered by wet batteries, sodium batteries, lithium metal batteries or lithium ion batteries and equipment powered by wet batteries or sodium batteries transported with these batteries installed.
Language:English
Score: 1565031.6 - https://www.icao.int/safety/Da...s/DGP26/DGP.26.WP.004.2.en.pdf
Data Source: un
Thousands of fuel cell- battery hybrid systems are being deployed annually around the world in a range of applications in light-duty passenger vehicles, transit buses and heavy duty trucks, telecommunications backup systems, materials handling units including fork lifts and portable power/charging devices. (...) Fuel cells that meet the robust IEC safety standard, which includes requirements governing the interactions between the fuel cell system and the consumer electronic device, offer an enhanced level of safety over and above what is currently permitted as to a multitude of battery-powered power sources permitted on board aircraft today. 2.5 Part 8, Table 8-1, subparagraph h) prohibiting fuel cell types whose sole function is to charge a battery in the device, singles out fuel cell technologies compared to other sources of electrical power currently allowed to charge batteries, on board aircraft, such as power from batteries, aircraft electrical outlet, or other means. 2.6 Prohibiting fuel cell types that charge batteries in a device when the device is not in use, as required by Part 8, Table 8-1, subparagraph i), has been found to be confusing and subject to varying interpretations by dangerous goods air safety regulatory authorities and by the fuel cell industry. (...) CONSDERATION BY THE DGP 3.1 The DGP is invited to discuss and provide feedback on the potential removal or modification of the prohibition on fuel cell types whose sole function is to charge a battery in a device in subparagraph h). The DGP is also invited to discuss removal or modification of the requirement in subparagraph i) that fuel cells must be of a type that will not charge batteries when the portable electronic device is not in use.
Language:English
Score: 1562289.5 - https://www.icao.int/safety/Da...ers/DGP.24.IP.002.2.Rev.en.pdf
Data Source: un
These entries include hybrid electric vehicles powered by both a fuel cell and an internal combustion engine with wet batteries, sodium batteries, lithium metal batteries or lithium ion batteries, transported with the battery(ies) installed. (...) These entries include hybrid electric vehicles powered by both an internal combustion engine and wet batteries, sodium batteries, lithium metal batteries or lithium ion batteries, transported with the battery(ies) installed. (...) Entry UN 3171 only applies to vehicles powered by wet batteries, sodium batteries, lithium metal batteries or lithium ion batteries and equipment powered by wet batteries or sodium batteries transported with these batteries installed.
Language:English
Score: 1549234.8 - https://www.icao.int/safety/Da...s/DGP26/DGP.26.WP.004.2.AR.pdf
Data Source: un
Examples of such vehicles are electrically-powered cars, motorcycles, scooters, three- and four-wheeled vehicles or motorcycles, trucks, locomotives, bicycles (pedal cycles with an electric motor) and other vehicles of this type (e.g. self-balancing vehicles or vehicles not equipped with at least one seating position)…”. 1.4 In addition, the UN Subcommittee adopted a change to Special Provision 240 that recognised that vehicles may have to be shipped in a packaging and that some parts of the vehicle, including the battery may be detached from the vehicle when being shipped. (...) However, lithium ion batteries with a Watt- hour rating exceeding 100 Wh, when shipped as Lithium ion batteries (UN 3480) must be in UN specification packagings, or in the case of Lithium ion batteries packed with equipment (UN 3481) either the battery or the battery and equipment must in UN specification packagings. (...) ADDITIONAL PACKING REQUIREMENTS This entry applies to vehicles and equipment which are powered by wet batteries, sodium batteries or lithium batteries and which are transported with these batteries installed, unless the vehicle is powered by a lithium or sodium battery and shipped in a disassembled state.
Language:English
Score: 1540727.1 - https://www.icao.int/safety/Da...s/DGP25/DGP.25.WP.005.2.ar.pdf
Data Source: un
Examples of such vehicles are electrically-powered cars, motorcycles, scooters, three- and four-wheeled vehicles or motorcycles, trucks, locomotives, bicycles (pedal cycles with an electric motor) and other vehicles of this type (e.g. self-balancing vehicles or vehicles not equipped with at least one seating position)…”. 1.4 In addition, the UN Subcommittee adopted a change to Special Provision 240 that recognised that vehicles may have to be shipped in a packaging and that some parts of the vehicle, including the battery may be detached from the vehicle when being shipped. (...) However, lithium ion batteries with a Watt- hour rating exceeding 100 Wh, when shipped as Lithium ion batteries (UN 3480) must be in UN specification packagings, or in the case of Lithium ion batteries packed with equipment (UN 3481) either the battery or the battery and equipment must in UN specification packagings. (...) ADDITIONAL PACKING REQUIREMENTS This entry applies to vehicles and equipment which are powered by wet batteries, sodium batteries or lithium batteries and which are transported with these batteries installed, unless the vehicle is powered by a lithium or sodium battery and shipped in a disassembled state.
Language:English
Score: 1526610.1 - https://www.icao.int/safety/Da...s/DGP25/DGP.25.WP.005.2.en.pdf
Data Source: un
(j) If possible, coat exposed hydraulic rams with a preserving fluid or grease (k) Protect unpainted metal surfaces such as roller chains, lift chains, sprockets with rust preventative (l) Drain air brake tanks of all water residue (m) If GSE is equipped with telematics, disconnect the main batteries to avoid draining the battery when in storage (n) Ensure all ignition / power systems are off or isolated (o) Protect against unauthorized usage by removing keys (if keyed ignition) or by appropriate kits to lock out/ tag out (p) For potable water truck tanks – Refer to WHO guidance and IATA IDQP policy - see Airport Handling Manual (AHM 440) 1. Try to rotate the potable water trucks (based on a timescale that does not require the full scale taking into service procedures) or downscale operations by keeping only certain trucks in service while taking others OOU. 2. Potable water trucks water tanks shall be kept empty and dried as much possible. 3.
Language:English
Score: 1516234.9 - https://www.icao.int/MID/Documents/RPTF/IATA_GHG.pdf
Data Source: un