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Wireless service: Cellular mobile communication BS class (see [b-3GPP TS 36.104]): Local Area BS RF signal: LTE or LTE-A Length of SMF in ODN: 20 or 40 km 9.2.1 Single downlink signal transmission Figure 9-2 shows the typical experimental set-up for measuring the transmission quality of a typical LTE signal. (...) The LTE VSG generated a typical LTE signal with the radio carrier frequency of 2.68 GHz, the bandwidth of 20 MHz, and the power of 0 dBm, in which the LTE band #7 was assumed (see [b-3GPP TS 36.101]). (...) SNI S/R R/S UNI OLT ODN ONU E/O converter O/E converter f : 2.68 GHz λ c : 1549.5 nm 25+5+10 km 0-30 dB RF BW: 20 MHz BW: 3 GHz BW: 1 nm BW: 3 GHz LTE VSG RoF Tx VOA EDFA OBPF RoF Tx LTE SA 3 cascaded LTE band #7 Auto-current EVM SMFs Splitting loss control measurement emulatio n 20 Measured optical power [dBm] –10 0 10 –20 –30 No reach extender –40 (no optical amplifier) 0 dB 10 dB 20 dB 30 dB G Suppl.55(15)_F9-2 Figure 9-2 – Typical experimental set-up (upper) and optical power level diagram (lower) The measured optical power level diagrams for 0, 10, 20, and 30 dB attenuation of the VOA are shown in Figure 9-2.
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Score: 745157.2 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page615.html
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 Page 617 - 5G Basics - Core Network Aspects           Basic HTML Version Table of Contents View Full Version Page 617 - 5G Basics - Core Network Aspects P. 617 Transport aspects 2 9.2.2 Single uplink signal transmission Figure 9-5 shows the typical experimental set-up for measuring the transmission quality of a typical LTE signal. (...) The LTE VSG generated a typical uplink LTE signal with the radio carrier frequency of 2.535 GHz, the bandwidth of 1.4 to 20 MHz, and the power of −10 dBm, in which the LTE band #7 was assumed (see [b-3GPP TS 36.101]). (...) UNI S/R R/S SNI ONU ODN OLT E/O converter O/E converter f RF : 2.535 GHz BW: 1.4 to 50-90 dB λ c : 1551.7 nm 25+5+10 km 0-30 dB 20 MHz BW: 3 GHz Gain: 20 dB BW: 1 nm BW: 3 GHz LTE VSG VOA RoF Tx VOA EDFA OBPF RoF Tx LTE SA 3 cascaded LTE band #7 SMFs EVM Additional Additional measurement propagation optical path loss emulation loss emulation 52 dB 25-40 dB LNA LD PD PA G Suppl.55(15)_F9-5 Figure 9-5 – Typical experimental set-up Figure 9-6 shows the measured EVM as a function of optical path loss to evaluate the available dynamic range of optical path loss.
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Score: 745157.2 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page617.html
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Deposits can either be made in cash (typically through an agent), or by receipt of a transfer from another consumer, business, or government entity. The eMoney provider typically uses a software platform from a support services provider to account for the ledger balances. • Regulation requires the eMoney provider keep the entire value of accounts on their ledger on deposit in an aggregated account at one or more commercial banks. (...) Funds held in banks, of course, are typically protected by some form of government insurance, and banks are allowed to lend or otherwise invest a certain amount of balances held on account.
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Score: 745157.2 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...m/files/basic-html/page22.html
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Therefore, it is assumed that the robustness and stability of such processes against failures which are typical to specific basic services of mobile networks will also have an effect on overall QoS of DFS. 5.2 Technological components of DFS As outlined in other parts of this document, there are some services and functionalities within existing mobile networks which can be used – with a further selection by available features of mobile devices - to realize DFS. (...) Clearly, there are several interactions with typical network properties. For instance, if the transaction is performed while the actor is moving (e.g. in a public transport vehicle or as a passenger in a car), the change of network conditions during a transaction influences the overall success rate. This links the time scale of motion- related impairments to transaction characteristics. If the typical overall duration of a DFS transaction (T1*N1 and T2*N2) is above the typical time during which network properties show degradations, the probability of failure increases.
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Score: 745157.2 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...n/files/basic-html/page39.html
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Thereafter HoD conference calls typically occur every two months between GSC meetings. (...) Communiqué Drafting Group Typically, the GSC Chair will organize a group responsible to draft a Communiqué. (...) This is related to, but distinct from, the GSC meetings and typically will have its own Chair and registration process.
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Score: 742177.64 - https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/it.../21/02/T21020000040001MSWE.doc
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The connected devices in our homes, businesses and communities are linked together through dedicated wireless networks. Connected devices typically operate at very low power and over short distances. (...) Connected devices in larger buildings such as hospitals, universities and schools typically use dedicated wireless systems with antennas distributed throughout the facility. (...) Some common RF transmitter sources and their typical operating powers are shown in Figure 1. More information is provided in Table 1 of section 2.4.
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Score: 741863.87 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page601.html
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 Page 1047 - 5G Basics - Core Network Aspects           Basic HTML Version Table of Contents View Full Version Page 1047 - 5G Basics - Core Network Aspects P. 1047 Transport aspects 2 Both diplexers have identical characteristics. There are typically no splitters or bridged taps in the G.fast path. (...) The signals at the Satellite port reside at 2.3 MHz and 950 to 2150 MHz. Typical diplexer characteristics from G.fast port to Common port: Passband: 0-0.5 and 5-806 MHz Insertion loss: 5 dB from 30 kHz to 500 kHz 4 dB from 4 to 5 MHz 2 dB from 6 to 7 MHz 1.5 dB from 6 to 212 MHz 2.5 dB 212 to 806 MHz >40 dB out of band Return loss with all ports terminated with 75 Ohms: 10 dB The coaxial cable signal loss characteristics in dB per 100 m are shown in Table X.19. (...) In order to assist the simulation and modelling of the coaxial cable insertion loss characteristics for typical DMT frequency grid, the exponential approximation formula is provided below. f = frequency in MHz b IL = a×f + c×f + d (dB/100 m) 1037     1042     1043     1044     1045     1046     1047     1048     1049     1050     1051     1052          
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Score: 741863.87 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...files/basic-html/page1047.html
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Contents About StarTimes1 DTV Platform of African 2 Key points to discuss3 StarTimes in Africa • The fastest‐growing, most influential digital TV operator in Africa • 200+ DTT transmission sites • DTH signal covers all the sub‐Sahara area • 9 million+ subscribers • 440+ channels  • 4000+ employee 5 Contents About StarTimes1 Typical DTT system composition2 Topics to discuss3 Typical DTT System composition • Content contribution • DVB headend • Backbone transmission • Transmission sites • Terminal system • Business and operation supporting system  Contents About StarTimes1 Typical DTT system composition2 Topics to discuss3 3 Topics to discuss  3.1 FTA or Pay TV?
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Score: 741863.87 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/R...June-AMS2017/S1_Zhang_Chao.pdf
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Then a user/terminal has to prove that the claimed identity is in fact the true identity. This typically occurs through strong cryptographic authentication procedures (e.g., protected password or ITU-T X.509 digital signatures); • Server authentication: Since VoIP users typically communicate with each other through some VoIP infrastructure that involves servers, gateways and possibly multicast techniques, both fixed and mobile users need to know if they are talking with the proper server and/or with the correct service provider; • User/terminal and server authentication: This is needed to counter security threats, such as masquerade, man-in-the-middle attacks, IP address spoofing and connection hijacking; • Call authorization: This is the decision-making process to determine if the user/terminal is actually permitted to use a service feature (e.g., calling into the PSTN) or a network resource. (...) Signalling protocols are typically protected by using encryption as well as by integrity and replay protection measures.
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Score: 741863.87 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/Publ.../files/basic-html/page131.html
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The purpose is to ensure smooth migration from today’s services to future services requiring very high speed transmission capabilities in all parts of the network, based on typical household expected future needs. Then, optical fibre should increase throughout metropolitan edge and local access networks, including reach into end-user connections. The reference model for communications infrastructure typically includes four levels of network: • Long haul or backbone, • Transit or metropolitan edge and back haul, • Access, including transport and local distribution, • Residential, including end-user connection. o Short-term future needs of the typical household will correspond to three TV channels (3 x 5 Mbit/s for MPEG2 DVD quality encoding) plus one high-speed data channel (5 to 10 Mbit/s) including audio and voice channels.
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Score: 741863.87 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/work...working/abstracts/s1-roche.pdf
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