Home

Results 1 - 10 of 60,149 for typically bigger. Search took 2.256 seconds.  
Sort by date/Sort by relevance
Deep discounts Price, of course, is the aspect of on-line trading that appeals to many retail customers. Typically, an on-line brokerage may charge only $10 or $20 to execute a trade for which a traditional stockbroker would ordinarily collect several hundred dollars in commissions. (...) Faced with becoming dinosaurs, most brokers are offering bigger discounts to clients with large portfolios and clients who call them with unsolicited trades. (...) They are also emphasizing that they can offer more and better service than the typical on-line trading house. They can educate their customers and provide discipline for portfolio management - something that many novice traders find a very expensive lesson.
Language:English
Score: 1354924.4 - https://www.itu.int/newsarchive/wtd/1999/iht10/tfi-01.html
Data Source: un
Stuart Davies-Rev.PDF Policy & Economic Impact of the Misuse of Telephone Numbers TAS Group Kuala Lumpur Malaysia Outline n What is PRS (Audiotext) n Policies n Why Pacific Islands operated PRS n Problems with PRS n Fraud n Counter Measures n Economic Impact What is Audiotext (PRS) n Audiotext or Premium Rate Service where people will call a number advertised to get a particular service. n Usually it is a soft porn service n The users calls the number advertised and ends up at the advertised service. n The telecom operator shares the termination rate with the Audiotext supplier n Because of the very large number of minutes involved, it is very profitable Why the Pacific Island Countries Promote PRS n Many small telecom operators have financial problems: n Very low population (customer) base n Very high costs to provide services n Very large service area with very high maintenance costs n US Benchmark Order n High Call termination rates Problems with PRS n Mostly porn sites n Large number complaints about the telephone bill n Problems if the collection rate is lower than the settlement rate when large volumes suddenly appear. n Attractive for fraudsters n Pirating of a countries numbers Fraud Currently two main types of Fraud: n Modem Jacking n GSM SIM Card misuse Both generate very large volumes of traffic Counter Measures Many Carriers who have either experienced fraud or wish to stop it happening typically bar IDD calls to suspect countries. Problem with this tactic is that it hurts innocent people while the fraudsters go free Counter Measures cont. PITA is taking action with the small Pacific Island countries: n Ten point action plan n Representation to international Fraud Organisations n Code of Conduct being drafted Economic Effects n Bigger telecom companies cannot afford the fraudulent losses which can be huge n Pacific Islands economies are heavily reliant on telecommunications for tourism etc. n Barring a country code will have a significant economic effect on small Pacific Island countries n Small Pacific Island countries will lose the PRS revenues Thank You
Language:English
Score: 1291367.8 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/fina...pur-05/presentation-davies.pdf
Data Source: un
It is evident that the actual value of the collections of texts will increase with the level of aggregation: in many respects it is correct to say “the bigger, the better”. What other services should libraries envisage when it comes to huge text collections and where should these be realized? The presentation will argue the case for providing a sound layer of services at the access point of maximal aggregation, i.e. TEL. Typically libraries are well advised to develop services that go beyond a simple text search in direct cooperation with the targeted user groups to assure that the services are actually wanted.
Language:English
Score: 1279391.8 - https://www.itu.int/en/history/Documents/IFLA2014/LIEDER.pdf
Data Source: un
Microsoft PowerPoint - EEE-ITU-SG15.ppt Energy Efficient EthernetEnergy Efficient Ethernet OverviewOverview ITU-T SG15 Geneva, Switzerland February 15, 2008 Mike Bennett Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory February 15, 2008 2 DisclaimerDisclaimer • The information you’re about to hear is my own point of view and does not represent an official position of the IEEE February 15, 2008 3 The bigger pictureThe bigger picture • LBNL’s work on Energy Efficient Ethernet is a part of the Energy Efficient Digital Networks project • Goal: – This project aims to reduce electricity use of electronics through a variety of methods, all with the common theme of digital networks. • Sponsors: – California Energy Commission (CEC) • Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program – U.S. (...) BackgroundBackground February 15, 2008 7 The problem The problem • Office equipment, network equipment, servers – 97 TWh/year • 3% of national electricity • 9% of commercial building electricity • Almost $8 billion/year TWh/year – Network Equipment 13 – Servers 12 – PCs / Workstations 20 – Imaging (Printers, etc.) 15 – Monitors / Displays 22 – UPS / Other 16 • … However – Old data (energy use has risen) – Doesn’t include residential IT or networked CE products 60% Networked Equipment Note: Year 2000 data taken from Energy Consumption by Office and Telecommunications Equipment in Commercial Buildings--Volume I: Energy Consumption Baseline Roth et al., 2002 Available at: http://www.eren.doe.gov/buildings/documents Numbers represent U.S. only February 15, 2008 8 Link powerLink power Results from (rough) measurements — all incremental AC power — measuring 1st order • Typical switch with 24 ports 10/100/1000 Mb/s • Various computer NICs averaged Based on initial numbers 10GBASE-T expected to be in the order of 25W AC February 15, 2008 9 Desktop links have low utilizationDesktop links have low utilization • Snapshot of a typical 100 Mb Ethernet link – Shows time versus utilization (trace from Portland State Univ.) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 Time (s) U til iz at io n Typical bursty usage (utilization = 1.0 %) February 15, 2008 10 Some Server links have low utilizationSome Server links have low utilization • Snapshot of a File Server with 1 Gb Ethernet link – Shows time versus utilization (trace from LBNL) utilization <=1.0 % Start time 12:33 PM 2/8/2007 (30 min) February 15, 2008 11 Potential Savings from EEEPotential Savings from EEE Assume 100% adoption (U.S. (...) February 15, 2008 16 0 1 2 3 S H A R E D D I G I T A L CHANNEL RESOURCES (ANALOG AND DIGITAL) CHANNEL RESOURCES (ANALOG AND DIGITAL) CHANNEL RESOURCES (ANALOG AND DIGITAL) CHANNEL RESOURCES (ANALOG AND DIGITAL) 10GBASE10GBASE--T PHYT PHY February 15, 2008 17 0 1 2 3 S H A R E D D I G I T A L CHANNEL RESOURCES (ANALOG AND DIGITAL) CHANNEL RESOURCES (ANALOG AND DIGITAL) CHANNEL RESOURCES (ANALOG AND DIGITAL) CHANNEL RESOURCES (ANALOG AND DIGITAL) Simple 10GBASESimple 10GBASE--T Subset PHYT Subset PHY CHA NNE LS 0 , 1, 2 TUR NED OFF February 15, 2008 18 Transition time comparisonTransition time comparison • Assumptions – 10GBASE-T is the highest negotiated speed – Power savings for various options is comparable • Subset PHY offers potential to improve transition time by over 3 orders of magnitude – μS instead of mS February 15, 2008 19 Study group summaryStudy group summary • During the Study group phase of project, we investigated: – Protocol to negotiate the speed change, stop transmission, change speeds and resume transmission at new speed – Impact of Frame-based protocol exchange on transition time » At slower speed, waiting on “normal” frames to finish before speed change dominates transition time » At higher speed, time to resume transmission dominates – Rapid PHY Selection / Fast Start (modified RPS) – Main difference between RPS and “Fast Start” is with the latter, state of channel characteristics is saved, entry points in state machines are optimized to minimize start-up time, thus minimizing total transition time » Transition time in the order of 10’s of milliseconds feasible – Subset PHY • Operate at lower speed by using a “subset” of a standard PHY – E.g. operate 1000BASE-T as a subset of a 10GBASE-T – Transition time in the order of 10’s of microseconds feasible – Also working on Backplane Ethernet and 10BASE-T February 15, 2008 20 Task Force OverviewTask Force Overview • Formed in November, 2007 • 2 meetings – 24 presentations • Digging deeper into the technical details – More work done on Subset PHY approach • Working towards developing a baseline set of proposals – Introduction of a new concept • Low Power Idle (began as “Active Idle toggling”) – Simple concept: transmit when there is data to send, reduced power when there is not » Add a counting state machine for idle modes to wake up periodically » Turn off receivers, transmitters for N frames » Turn on receiver (or transmitter) on schedule for 1 (or M) frames » Check for “wake-up” codeword » Continue activity transitioning back to active mode or go back to “counting sleep” depending on codeword received February 15, 2008 21 Low Power IdleLow Power Idle Low Power Idle: • Energy use is lower than typical NIC and RPS (rate shifting) – Transition time in the order if microseconds feasible February 15, 2008 22 Task Force SummaryTask Force Summary • We’re making good progress – Lots of good ideas • We have a number of open questions to answer and issues to deal with – Low Power Idle will be efficient in bursty traffic • What happens when the traffic is real time and / or streaming?
Language:English
Score: 1278955.6 - https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/it.../09/05/T09050000010005PDFE.pdf
Data Source: un
In wireline environments, the MTU size is generally chosen one order of a magnitude bigger, because of overhead/payload overhead considerations, and the bit error free nature of most of those networks. (...) Of all the mechanisms of the second type, only intra refresh is a universally useful tool, and, hence it is assumed being the only available tool (the others should IMHO make it into some profiles as well, but for sake of simplicity are not discussed further). An intra MB is typically at least three times bigger than an inter coded MB. (...) The tests have to run under the following conditions: · For both error prone and error free tests an identical set of error resilience tools at identical strength setting (i.e. same number and same position of intra coded macroblocks, same slice shapes etc.) must be used. · For each picture, the total amount of bits spend for error resilience must not be bigger than 6 times the number of lost bits (or the corresponding number in bit error prone environments). · The MTU size has to be chosen according to the target application.
Language:English
Score: 1269562.5 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...te/2002_01_Geneva/JVT-B025.doc
Data Source: un
In wireline environments, the MTU size is generally chosen one order of a magnitude bigger, because of overhead/payload overhead considerations, and the bit error free nature of most of those networks. (...) Of all the mechanisms of the second type, only intra refresh is a universally useful tool, and, hence it is assumed being the only available tool (the others should IMHO make it into some profiles as well, but for sake of simplicity are not discussed further). An intra MB is typically at least three times bigger than an inter coded MB. (...) The tests have to run under the following conditions: · For both error prone and error free tests an identical set of error resilience tools at identical strength setting (i.e. same number and same position of intra coded macroblocks, same slice shapes etc.) must be used. · For each picture, the total amount of bits spend for error resilience must not be bigger than 6 times the number of lost bits (or the corresponding number in bit error prone environments). · The MTU size has to be chosen according to the target application.
Language:English
Score: 1269562.5 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...deo-site/0201_Gen/JVT-B025.doc
Data Source: un
In wireline environments, the MTU size is generally chosen one order of a magnitude bigger, because of overhead/payload overhead considerations, and the bit error free nature of most of those networks. (...) Of all the mechanisms of the second type, only intra refresh is a universally useful tool, and, hence it is assumed being the only available tool (the others should IMHO make it into some profiles as well, but for sake of simplicity are not discussed further). An intra MB is typically at least three times bigger than an inter coded MB. (...) The tests have to run under the following conditions: · For both error prone and error free tests an identical set of error resilience tools at identical strength setting (i.e. same number and same position of intra coded macroblocks, same slice shapes etc.) must be used. · For each picture, the total amount of bits spend for error resilience, when compared to the coding method specified in the current Test Model for an error free environment within the complexity constraints of that profile, must not be bigger than 6 times the number of lost bits (or the corresponding number in bit error prone environments). · The MTU size has to be chosen according to the target application.
Language:English
Score: 1269562.5 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...o-site/0201_Gen/JVT-B025r1.doc
Data Source: un
In wireline environments, the MTU size is generally chosen one order of a magnitude bigger, because of overhead/payload overhead considerations, and the bit error free nature of most of those networks. (...) Of all the mechanisms of the second type, only intra refresh is a universally useful tool, and, hence it is assumed being the only available tool (the others should IMHO make it into some profiles as well, but for sake of simplicity are not discussed further). An intra MB is typically at least three times bigger than an inter coded MB. (...) The tests have to run under the following conditions: · For both error prone and error free tests an identical set of error resilience tools at identical strength setting (i.e. same number and same position of intra coded macroblocks, same slice shapes etc.) must be used. · For each picture, the total amount of bits spend for error resilience, when compared to the coding method specified in the current Test Model for an error free environment within the complexity constraints of that profile, must not be bigger than 6 times the number of lost bits (or the corresponding number in bit error prone environments). · The MTU size has to be chosen according to the target application.
Language:English
Score: 1269562.5 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a.../2002_01_Geneva/JVT-B025r1.doc
Data Source: un
Up to 5% of harvests in the unit of package may have smaller of bigger diameter from the diameter prescribed for that class. (...) In the class I are classified apples of high-quality and quality varieties, with all variety characteristics, without bigger defficiencies, where there may be few smaller harvests in the variety with big harvests with the diameter of at least 60 mm and for the variety with small harvests with the diameter of at least 55 mm. (...) In the unit of package of plums of this class may be only harvests of big varieties with the typical variety characteristics.
Language:English
Score: 1263811.9 - https://www.wto.org/english/th.../cgr_e/WTACCCGR24A2_LEG_7c.pdf
Data Source: un
How was this expansion related to bigger vessels and a process of merger, acquisitions and alliances? (...) However, after the 2010 “spring”, bigger liner shipping companies performed for the first time a “trilogy”: increasing number of shipbuilding orders for new vessels, bigger ships and concentrated alliances. (...) The change in the behaviour of liner container shipping bigger companies with respect to shipbuilding in periods of crisis supports that notion.
Language:English
Score: 1257146.4 - https://www.cepal.org/fr/node/41866
Data Source: un