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Topics Publications HRP research programme About us Staff Contact us The effects of contraception on obstetric outcomes Authors : Cicely Marston & John Cleland Publication details Number of pages : 52 Publication date : 2004 Languages : English ISBN : 92 4 159225 7 - Web only Downloads English Does contraception contribute to better maternal health beyond its potential to reduce the proportion of births that are unwanted? (...) The second section examines a related possibility, namely that unwanted births represent a greater threat to the mother’s health than wanted births because less time and money are invested in antenatal and natal care. (...) This section presents new evidence on the link between “unwantedness” and obstetric care. You are here: Sexual and reproductive health Publications Family planning Quick Links Sitemap Home Health topics Data Media centre Publications Countries Programmes and projects Governance About WHO Help and Services Contacts FAQs Employment Feedback Privacy E-mail scams WHO Regional Offices WHO African Region WHO Region of the Americas WHO South-East Asia Region WHO European Region WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region WHO Western Pacific Region © WHO 2022 Back to top Email Address Sign up for WHO updates
Language:English
Score: 1222131.8 - https://www.who.int/reproducti...family_planning/9241592257/en/
Data Source: un
Reported rates of rapid, repeat pregnancy among adolescents range from 20-50%. Effective postpartum and post-abortion contraceptive use can avert unwanted pregnancies. (...) Geographic location Ghana, Malawi Main deliverables A piloted and tested intervention strategy to prevent repeat unwanted pregnancy among adolescents Partners University of Ghana School of Public Health College of Medicine, University of Malawi Sources of funding HRP, USAID Date Issued January, 2016 mailto:reproductivehealth@who.int http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/en/
Language:English
Score: 1216440.4 - https://www.who.int/reproducti...ojects/AHEAD-Project-brief.pdf
Data Source: un
Climate change impacts are expected to lead to species loss, habitat loss especially for waterbirds and large bird species, and loss of breeding grounds. Potential Effects  Biodiversity changes may include shifts in the diversity of bird species that are present at an airport. (...) Additionally, understanding how climate change will affect birds and wildlife is essential to assess the risks to aviation and to develop adaption and resiliency measures to reduce effects.  Any measures should be developed in co-operation with environmental protection experts and organisations, and should also take into account environmental protection.  Expanded use of bird strike avoidance models is a potential measure.  Up-to-date data information will allow for the preparation and use of the most effective methods in wildlife hazard reduction, whilst taking account of nature protection and relevant environmental regulations.  In some cases, vegetation management to address unwanted flora may be a solution. o Mowing or trimming can be a short-term fix. However, these strategies do not completely remove unwanted vegetation and may allow them to regrow. This may also attract birds as worms and mice become more visible in trimmed flora. o Herbicidal treatments may provide a longer-term solution, but could lead to groundwater contamination. o Permanent removal though extraction or landscaping changes may be used so that the plants do not grow back.
Language:English
Score: 1205763.3 - https://www.icao.int/environme...hanges%20to%20Biodiversity.pdf
Data Source: un
Nuptiality / Marital fertility rates 2. Wanted / Unwanted fertility - Wanted: Limiting / Spacing - Unwanted: Non-use / Discontinuation / Failure 3. (...) Nuptiality / Marital fertility rates 2. Wanted / Unwanted fertility - Wanted: Limiting / Spacing - Unwanted: Unmet Need / Discontinuation / Failure 3. (...) Decomposing Fertility Differences Wanted or Unwanted Fertility? Wanted or Unwanted Fertility? Wanted Fertility: Limiting Wanted Fertility: Spacing Change in Unwanted Fertility: Sources Conclusion 2.
Language:English
Score: 1204788.4 - https://www.un.org/development...s/200912_unpd_egm_el_zeini.pdf
Data Source: un
a) Increases female labour-force participation & earnings • Toll on women’s earnings • Studies across the world show schooling and lifetime earnings increased by: – Giving young women access to family planning – Delaying first birth b) Lowering physical & financial barriers to contraceptive access most help to the least disadvantaged women • Poorer women typically report: – higher unmet need for family planning – higher numbers of unwanted children, except in settings with very effective family planning programmes • Analyses of policy-related variation in access to contraception find: – access to contraception brings the most benefits to poor, less educated, and adolescent women Unwanted fertility is higher among the poor, and effective family planning programs can reduce this gap Source: Gillespie et al. (2007): Table 1 c) Lower fertility helps improve women’s health • Maternal mortality is a major cause of death for young women in high fertility settings. (...) WOMEN’S PRIMARY ROLES OFTEN PERCEIVED TO BE DOMESTIC, CONSTRAINED POWER TO DECIDE ON THEIR OWN CHILDBEARING a) Low decision-making power in the household • Young women often not primary decision-makers on childbearing: – husband or partner – mother-in-law and other in-laws may act as gate-keepers • Where contraceptive use is not yet commonplace, this can be major barrier to contraceptive use: – women often more motivated than other decision-makers to control childbearing – low spousal communication – covert use of contraception by women • Communication outreach can change norms of whole communities, reduce barriers to use b) Limitations on mobility outside the home • In some settings, women’s mobility is a constraint – Family planning programs can ease access to reproductive health services by doorstep delivery • When compounded by low literacy, women’s access to information limited – but mass media reaches into their homes c) Exposure to early childbearing • Adolescent / early childbearing, due to : – traditions of child marriage – early initiation of sexual activity • Limits women’s empowerment: – lower school attainment and future earnings – exposes them to a longer duration of childbearing • Making contraceptive information and supplies easily accessible to young women helps them avoid unwanted pregnancies • Programs / financial incentives to keep girls in school & avoid pregnancy CONCLUSIONS Studies from across the world show greater control over childbearing can quickly empower women along several dimensions: • For women: higher schooling, work prospects, lifetime earnings (and better health) • For their children: more human capital, improved life-chances • Helps most women who are poor/ less-educated Helps break cycle of poverty for households and their children While other efforts to empower women are long-term in impact, simple interventions in family planning programs can help, e.g.: • Mass communication to reduce potential opposition by spouses/elders to women’s use of contraception • Ensure easy access to contraceptive information and supplies, especially for young women – e.g. mobile phones, social marketing, community-level service delivery • Assure uninterrupted access to low-cost contraception, so women can avoid unwanted births Women’s Empowerment and Fertility: Policy Lessons Outline of talk Defining the issue Section 1How does greater control over childbearing empower women?
Language:English
Score: 1199394.7 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...3-EGM_Monica%20Das%20Gupta.pdf
Data Source: un
14 Desire to Practice Fertility Control  is Increasing Source: PDHS 1990‐91 & 2006‐07 15 More than one in three Women has  Unmet Need for Family Planning Sources: PDHS 1990‐91; PRHFPS 2001; PDHS 2006‐07 16 Total and Unwanted Fertility  (1997 – 2007) Source: PFFPS 1996‐97 and PDHS 2006‐07 17 Wanted and Unwanted Fertility by  Region, Education and Income (2007) Source: PDHS 2006‐07 18 The Changing Context – Policies,  Gender, Education and Poverty 19 Population Policies  National Population program since 1965  Moribund status for much of the 70’s  Birth of social marketing since 80’s but restricted to  urban areas  Renewed fervour since 1998‐new population policy  2002‐Government invests its own funds in family  planning since international funds dwindle  Lady health workers since 1994‐door step delivery  Latest revival of interest of Ministry of Health to  deliver family planning services 20 Rise in Enrollment Rates but is it  Enough? Sources: PIHS and PSLMS 1991 – 2006 21 Pakistanis More Educated but Women  Lag Behind Population age Education Pyramid (10+) Sources:  PDHS 1991 & PDHS 2007, NIPS 22 Women More Engaged in Productive  Work but still Very Low Participation Source: Pakistan Labour Force Surveys 1991‐ 2008 23 Looking Ahead 24 Decline in Fertility Greater in Non‐Poor  Households  Source: PSLM 2005‐06 25 Fertility Trends‐ Past and Future Current  decline shows TFR reaching 3.4 in 2015 and 2.6 in 2030 Proposed  decline shows TFR reaching 3.0 in 2015 and 2.2 in 2030 26 Fertility Decline Scenarios 27 Prospects for Growth 28 Projected Population Size  29 Conclusions  Dispute about fertility levels now narrowing to  slimmer differences  Marriage changes major explanation for fertility  decline through out  Some tempo effects may explain fertility decline in  the absence of contraceptive use change  Economic conditions likely to intensify desires for  lesser children, and to increase unwanted fertility  Further fertility decline is largely contingent on  active policy to promote family planning services 30 Thanks! (...) Age at Marriage has been Rising Steadily, Especially for Women Changes in Current and Ever Use of Contraception over Time Current and Ever Use by Region 1991-2007 Contraceptive Mix 1991-2007 Abortions a Reality Contribution of Proximate Determinants of Fertility Slide Number 13 Desire to Practice Fertility Control is Increasing More than one in three Women has Unmet Need for Family Planning Total and Unwanted Fertility (1997 – 2007) Wanted and Unwanted Fertility by Region, Education and Income (2007) Slide Number 18 Population Policies Rise in Enrollment Rates but is it Enough?
Language:English
Score: 1198717.3 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...nts/pdf/expert/15.5/Sathar.pdf
Data Source: un
They mirror the extent of unmet need for effective contraception either to delay pregnancies and space births (mistimed fertility) or to stop childbearing (unwanted fertility). (...) If contraception 5-4 is introduced to such a population, and the contraception is 100% effective, then, the actual unwanted fertility is equal to the product of the proportion of married women who are not using contraceptives after completing their desired family size. (...) At this stage, the most popular contraceptive methods are likely to be effective but temporary methods. Secondly, we expect the level of unwanted fertility to increase, reflecting a downward trends in fertility preference.
Language:English
Score: 1192087.2 - https://www.un.org/development...nted_childbearing_adetunji.pdf
Data Source: un
Nicaragua Mexico Peru El Salvador N um be r o f c hi ld re n Total unwanted fertility rate Total wanted fertility rate Source: ICF. (...) Latin America (7 countries): Total wanted and unwanted fertility rates by place of residence, 1980’s surveys. 1. (...) Effective policies within the frame of rights What we know about the causes of fertility decline?
Language:English
Score: 1185866.1 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...8/EGM_Suzana_Cavenaghi_ppt.pdf
Data Source: un
In table 4, the estimate of the percentage of births unwanted (right-hand column) is straightforward to interpret (setting aside the underlying complexity of the notion of "unwanted birth"), as is the unwanted TFR. (...) Both indicate that unwanted fertility is relatively common throughout the region. (...) Contraceptive methods vary considerably in both their theoretical use-effectiveness and their practical use-effectiveness.
Language:English
Score: 1176820.1 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...pert-Paper_FINAL_ALL-Pages.pdf
Data Source: un
The global spotlight on sexual violence in 2016 created a ripple effect in the country, which saw the rise of national and local initiatives to respond to the call to protect women and girls. (...) Gender-based and public spaces sexual harassments includes Catcalling, wolf-whistling, unwanted invitations. misogynistic, transphobic, homophobic and sexist slurs; persistent uninvited comments or gestures on a person's appearance; relentless requests for personal details; statement of sexual comments and suggestions; public masturbation or flashing of private parts, groping, or any advances, whether verbal or physical, that is unwanted and has threatened one's sense of personal space and physical safety. (...) The CICC of the DICT shall coordinate with the PNPACG to prepare appropriate and effective measures to monitor and penalize gender-based online sexual harassment.
Language:English
Score: 1157955.7 - https://www.unwomen.org/sites/...-Submission-Philippines-en.pdf
Data Source: un