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Other dangers arise when unwanted pesticides and containers are disposed of inappropriately. (...) Pesticide suppliers should ensure that effective product stewardship systems are in place. (...) It may, therefore, be more effective to direct information and training to women because, even if they do not use pesticides themselves, they often pass the message on more effectively to those who do.
Language:English
Score: 1351671.5 - https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/...esticides/docs/small_qties.pdf
Data Source: un
Western Pacific Singapore Home Health topics Our work News Emergencies About us Home / Publications detail / The effects of contraception on obstetric outcomes / Cicely Marston and John Cleland The effects of contraception on obstetric outcomes / Cicely Marston and John Cleland 1 January 2004  |  Publication Download (691.4 kB) Overview Does contraception contribute to better maternal health beyond its potential to reduce the proportion of births that are unwanted? (...) The second section examines a related possibility, namely that unwanted births represent a greater threat to the mother’s health than wanted births because less time and money are invested in antenatal and natal care. (...) This section presents new evidence on the link between “unwantedness” and obstetric care. WHO Team Sexual and Reproductive Health and Research Editors World Health Organization Number of pages 49 Reference numbers ISBN: ISBN 92 4 159225 7 Copyright World Health Organization, 2004 - All rights reserved.
Language:English
Score: 1340717.1 - https://www.who.int/singapore/publications-detail/9241592257
Data Source: un
Western Pacific Republic of Korea Home Health topics Our work News Emergencies About us Home / Publications detail / The effects of contraception on obstetric outcomes / Cicely Marston and John Cleland The effects of contraception on obstetric outcomes / Cicely Marston and John Cleland 1 January 2004  |  Publication Download (691.4 kB) Overview Does contraception contribute to better maternal health beyond its potential to reduce the proportion of births that are unwanted? (...) The second section examines a related possibility, namely that unwanted births represent a greater threat to the mother’s health than wanted births because less time and money are invested in antenatal and natal care. (...) This section presents new evidence on the link between “unwantedness” and obstetric care. WHO Team Sexual and Reproductive Health and Research Editors World Health Organization Number of pages 49 Reference numbers ISBN: ISBN 92 4 159225 7 Copyright World Health Organization, 2004 - All rights reserved.
Language:English
Score: 1340717.1 - https://www.who.int/republicof...publications-detail/9241592257
Data Source: un
Topics Publications HRP research programme About us Staff Contact us The effects of contraception on obstetric outcomes Authors : Cicely Marston & John Cleland Publication details Number of pages : 52 Publication date : 2004 Languages : English ISBN : 92 4 159225 7 - Web only Downloads English Does contraception contribute to better maternal health beyond its potential to reduce the proportion of births that are unwanted? (...) The second section examines a related possibility, namely that unwanted births represent a greater threat to the mother’s health than wanted births because less time and money are invested in antenatal and natal care. (...) This section presents new evidence on the link between “unwantedness” and obstetric care. You are here: Sexual and reproductive health Publications Family planning Quick Links Sitemap Home Health topics Data Media centre Publications Countries Programmes and projects Governance About WHO Help and Services Contacts FAQs Employment Feedback Privacy E-mail scams WHO Regional Offices WHO African Region WHO Region of the Americas WHO South-East Asia Region WHO European Region WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region WHO Western Pacific Region © WHO 2022 Back to top Email Address Sign up for WHO updates
Language:English
Score: 1339068.3 - https://www.who.int/reproducti...family_planning/9241592257/en/
Data Source: un
Reported rates of rapid, repeat pregnancy among adolescents range from 20-50%. Effective postpartum and post-abortion contraceptive use can avert unwanted pregnancies. (...) Geographic location Ghana, Malawi Main deliverables A piloted and tested intervention strategy to prevent repeat unwanted pregnancy among adolescents Partners University of Ghana School of Public Health College of Medicine, University of Malawi Sources of funding HRP, USAID Date Issued January, 2016 mailto:reproductivehealth@who.int http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/en/
Language:English
Score: 1328815 - https://www.who.int/reproducti...ojects/AHEAD-Project-brief.pdf
Data Source: un
In the US, more into answering unwanted calls and further a variety of scams. than 75% of the reported fraud and identity theft attempts are To provide a solution to this problem, this paper proposes made over the phone [1]. (...) According to a recent for future defenses to stop unwanted calls based on the caller research [9], illegal callers today have access to various tech- ID information. (...) ID spoofing is particularly effective at defeating call block- ers, avoiding identification, and further a variety of scams.
Language:English
Score: 1313328.4 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page183.html
Data Source: un
Based on contributions to the meeting, a combined table of unwanted emissions using a time-phased approach of implementing values of unwanted emissions in certain bands was developed. (...) NOTE 2: The measurement bandwidth used may be 3 kHz if the unwanted e.i.r.p. limits are reduced correspondingly. (...) Table 2A-B3 Maximum e.i.r.p. of the unwanted emissions in the carrier-off state Frequency(MHz)e.i.r.p.
Language:English
Score: 1306745 - https://www.itu.int/itudoc/itu...es/rsg/lcce/rsg8/37734_ww7.doc
Data Source: un
a) Increases female labour-force participation & earnings • Toll on women’s earnings • Studies across the world show schooling and lifetime earnings increased by: – Giving young women access to family planning – Delaying first birth b) Lowering physical & financial barriers to contraceptive access most help to the least disadvantaged women • Poorer women typically report: – higher unmet need for family planning – higher numbers of unwanted children, except in settings with very effective family planning programmes • Analyses of policy-related variation in access to contraception find: – access to contraception brings the most benefits to poor, less educated, and adolescent women Unwanted fertility is higher among the poor, and effective family planning programs can reduce this gap Source: Gillespie et al. (2007): Table 1 c) Lower fertility helps improve women’s health • Maternal mortality is a major cause of death for young women in high fertility settings. (...) WOMEN’S PRIMARY ROLES OFTEN PERCEIVED TO BE DOMESTIC, CONSTRAINED POWER TO DECIDE ON THEIR OWN CHILDBEARING a) Low decision-making power in the household • Young women often not primary decision-makers on childbearing: – husband or partner – mother-in-law and other in-laws may act as gate-keepers • Where contraceptive use is not yet commonplace, this can be major barrier to contraceptive use: – women often more motivated than other decision-makers to control childbearing – low spousal communication – covert use of contraception by women • Communication outreach can change norms of whole communities, reduce barriers to use b) Limitations on mobility outside the home • In some settings, women’s mobility is a constraint – Family planning programs can ease access to reproductive health services by doorstep delivery • When compounded by low literacy, women’s access to information limited – but mass media reaches into their homes c) Exposure to early childbearing • Adolescent / early childbearing, due to : – traditions of child marriage – early initiation of sexual activity • Limits women’s empowerment: – lower school attainment and future earnings – exposes them to a longer duration of childbearing • Making contraceptive information and supplies easily accessible to young women helps them avoid unwanted pregnancies • Programs / financial incentives to keep girls in school & avoid pregnancy CONCLUSIONS Studies from across the world show greater control over childbearing can quickly empower women along several dimensions: • For women: higher schooling, work prospects, lifetime earnings (and better health) • For their children: more human capital, improved life-chances • Helps most women who are poor/ less-educated Helps break cycle of poverty for households and their children While other efforts to empower women are long-term in impact, simple interventions in family planning programs can help, e.g.: • Mass communication to reduce potential opposition by spouses/elders to women’s use of contraception • Ensure easy access to contraceptive information and supplies, especially for young women – e.g. mobile phones, social marketing, community-level service delivery • Assure uninterrupted access to low-cost contraception, so women can avoid unwanted births Women’s Empowerment and Fertility: Policy Lessons Outline of talk Defining the issue Section 1How does greater control over childbearing empower women?
Language:English
Score: 1303901.4 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...3-EGM_Monica%20Das%20Gupta.pdf
Data Source: un
14 Desire to Practice Fertility Control  is Increasing Source: PDHS 1990‐91 & 2006‐07 15 More than one in three Women has  Unmet Need for Family Planning Sources: PDHS 1990‐91; PRHFPS 2001; PDHS 2006‐07 16 Total and Unwanted Fertility  (1997 – 2007) Source: PFFPS 1996‐97 and PDHS 2006‐07 17 Wanted and Unwanted Fertility by  Region, Education and Income (2007) Source: PDHS 2006‐07 18 The Changing Context – Policies,  Gender, Education and Poverty 19 Population Policies  National Population program since 1965  Moribund status for much of the 70’s  Birth of social marketing since 80’s but restricted to  urban areas  Renewed fervour since 1998‐new population policy  2002‐Government invests its own funds in family  planning since international funds dwindle  Lady health workers since 1994‐door step delivery  Latest revival of interest of Ministry of Health to  deliver family planning services 20 Rise in Enrollment Rates but is it  Enough? Sources: PIHS and PSLMS 1991 – 2006 21 Pakistanis More Educated but Women  Lag Behind Population age Education Pyramid (10+) Sources:  PDHS 1991 & PDHS 2007, NIPS 22 Women More Engaged in Productive  Work but still Very Low Participation Source: Pakistan Labour Force Surveys 1991‐ 2008 23 Looking Ahead 24 Decline in Fertility Greater in Non‐Poor  Households  Source: PSLM 2005‐06 25 Fertility Trends‐ Past and Future Current  decline shows TFR reaching 3.4 in 2015 and 2.6 in 2030 Proposed  decline shows TFR reaching 3.0 in 2015 and 2.2 in 2030 26 Fertility Decline Scenarios 27 Prospects for Growth 28 Projected Population Size  29 Conclusions  Dispute about fertility levels now narrowing to  slimmer differences  Marriage changes major explanation for fertility  decline through out  Some tempo effects may explain fertility decline in  the absence of contraceptive use change  Economic conditions likely to intensify desires for  lesser children, and to increase unwanted fertility  Further fertility decline is largely contingent on  active policy to promote family planning services 30 Thanks! (...) Age at Marriage has been Rising Steadily, Especially for Women Changes in Current and Ever Use of Contraception over Time Current and Ever Use by Region 1991-2007 Contraceptive Mix 1991-2007 Abortions a Reality Contribution of Proximate Determinants of Fertility Slide Number 13 Desire to Practice Fertility Control is Increasing More than one in three Women has Unmet Need for Family Planning Total and Unwanted Fertility (1997 – 2007) Wanted and Unwanted Fertility by Region, Education and Income (2007) Slide Number 18 Population Policies Rise in Enrollment Rates but is it Enough?
Language:English
Score: 1296042.6 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...nts/pdf/expert/15.5/Sathar.pdf
Data Source: un
Nicaragua Mexico Peru El Salvador N um be r o f c hi ld re n Total unwanted fertility rate Total wanted fertility rate Source: ICF. (...) Latin America (7 countries): Total wanted and unwanted fertility rates by place of residence, 1980’s surveys. 1. (...) Effective policies within the frame of rights What we know about the causes of fertility decline?
Language:English
Score: 1292324.9 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...8/EGM_Suzana_Cavenaghi_ppt.pdf
Data Source: un