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For example, a series of experiments can be run in which contraceptive effectiveness is varied. Such experiments can provide insights into the effects on fertility of different family planning programme strategies. (...) Widowhood . Contraceptive effectiveness .... Divorce . Remarriage from widowhood ..... (...) For family planning strategy IV, contraceptive effectiveness is raised to 99 per cent and no induced abortion is assumed, since the assumption is that it would' be unnecessary if con- traception were 99 per cent effective.
Language:English
Score: 1145668.4 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...fertility-programmes/chap7.pdf
Data Source: un
It is a global problem that requires a multifaceted, comprehensive approach that includes: effective legislation and enforcement, development of technical measures, establishment of industry partnerships and self-regulation, education, international cooperation. (...) What telecommunication network standardization work, if any, is needed to effectively counter spam as it relates to the stability and robustness of the telecommunication network? Tasks Tasks include, but are not limited to: Act as the lead group in ITU-T on technical means for countering spam, as spam is described by Study Group 2. Establish effective cooperation with the IETF, the relevant ITU study groups and appropriate consortia and fora, including private sector entities for this area.
Language:English
Score: 1144627.8 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com17/sg17-q5.html
Data Source: un
M.1580 : Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Français   Español     Home : ITU-R : Publications : Recommendations : M Series : M.1580 Recently posted  -  Search Recommendations     M.1580 : Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000 Recommendation M.1580 Approved in 2014-02 Managed by R00-SG05 Main Number Title Status Questions M.1580-5 (02/2014)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   In force (Main) N/A       Draft Number Title Status Questions M.5/BL/9   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Draft N/A       Previous versions Number Title Status Questions M.1580-0 (07/02)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Superseded N/A   M.1580-1 (08/05)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Superseded N/A   M.1580-2 (10/07)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT 2000   Superseded 229/8   M.1580-4 (03/12)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Superseded 229-2/5   M.1580-3 (10/09)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT- 2000   Superseded 229/5     Top  -  Feedback  -  Contact us  -  Copyright © ITU  2008 All Rights Reserved Contact for this page :  ITU-R Web coordinator Updated : 2016-09-20  
Language:English
Score: 1141601 - https://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-M.1580/en
Data Source: un
M.1581 : Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Français   Español     Home : ITU-R : Publications : Recommendations : M Series : M.1581 Recently posted  -  Search Recommendations     M.1581 : Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000 Recommendation M.1581 Approved in 2014-02 Managed by R00-SG05 Main Number Title Status Questions M.1581-5 (02/2014)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   In force (Main) N/A       Draft Number Title Status Questions M.5/BL/10   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Draft N/A       Previous versions Number Title Status Questions M.1581-0 (07/02)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Superseded N/A   M.1581-2 (10/07)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Superseded 229/8   M.1581-1 (06/03)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Superseded N/A   M.1581-4 (03/12)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Superseded 229-2/5   M.1581-3 (10/09)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT 2000   Superseded 229/8     Top  -  Feedback  -  Contact us  -  Copyright © ITU  2008 All Rights Reserved Contact for this page :  ITU-R Web coordinator Updated : 2016-09-14  
Language:English
Score: 1141601 - https://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-M.1581/_page.print
Data Source: un
M.1581 : Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Français   Español     Home : ITU-R : Publications : Recommendations : M Series : M.1581 Recently posted  -  Search Recommendations     M.1581 : Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000 Recommendation M.1581 Approved in 2014-02 Managed by R00-SG05 Main Number Title Status Questions M.1581-5 (02/2014)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   In force (Main) N/A       Draft Number Title Status Questions M.5/BL/10   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Draft N/A       Previous versions Number Title Status Questions M.1581-0 (07/02)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Superseded N/A   M.1581-2 (10/07)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Superseded 229/8   M.1581-1 (06/03)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Superseded N/A   M.1581-4 (03/12)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Superseded 229-2/5   M.1581-3 (10/09)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT 2000   Superseded 229/8     Top  -  Feedback  -  Contact us  -  Copyright © ITU  2008 All Rights Reserved Contact for this page :  ITU-R Web coordinator Updated : 2016-09-14  
Language:English
Score: 1141601 - https://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-M.1581/en
Data Source: un
. • Fourthly, access to safe abortion services could reduce drastically the adverse outcomes, including death, experienced by the estimated 3.2 million teenage girls who have an unsafe abortion (half of whom live in Africa) because they had an unwanted pregnancy. • Unwanted pregnancies can be prevented by governments improving access to effective contraception among sexually active adolescents, married or unmarried; unmet need is currently very high, with over 50 percent of adolescents in many countries being sexually active but without using contraception. • Fifthly, unprotected sex can transmit sexually transmitted infections, including HIV; 2 million adolescents live with HIV and risk of HIV is 2.5 to 4 times higher among young women than young men. (...) Access to condoms and to comprehensive sexuality education, both of which are known to be effective in preventing sexual transmission of infections, is unfortunately limited and non-existent in many countries, yet their potential impact on health is enormous. • While increasing access to such services can effectively reduce these risks of disease and death among adolescents, coercive sex and other violence against young girls, including child, early or forced marriage and female genital mutilation, as well as other gender- based inequalities – in education, employment, and politics – will undo the hard-earned benefits from government investments in strengthening health services.
Language:English
Score: 1141546 - https://www.who.int/reproducti...Askew-address-IPU-Assembly.pdf
Data Source: un
  1
It is therefore obvious that not all elements can be used for the French/European context. 2.1.1 Unwanted emission It was concluded that the US problematic for the unwanted emissions of the frequency band 3.7-3.98 GHz into the Radio altimeter frequency band 4.2-4.4 GHz is totally different and not applicable to the European context. DGAC therefore did not take into account the unwanted emission assessment of the RTCA report. 2.1.2 Blocking Effect Some GIFAS members, who did participate actively to the development of the RTCA report, provided us data regarding the susceptibility of some Radio altimeters below 3.7 GHz (down to 3.4 GHz). (...) Therefore the blocking effect issue that is described in the RTCA Report SC-239 is also applicable to the European context.
Language:English
Score: 1137086.9 - https://www.icao.int/safety/FS...mitigate%20interference_r1.doc
Data Source: un
Radio Interference Committed to connecting the world عربي 中文 Español Français Русский Search for: ITU About ITU Media Centre Events Publications Statistics Areas of Action Regional Presence Careers General Secretariat Radiocommunication Standardization Development ITU Telecom Members' Zone Join ITU Radio Interference Rollup Image You are here ITU > Home > mediacentre > Backgrounders > Radio Interference Share Page Content 10 ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​ ​​ ​ Overview Page Content 2 Radio interference is defined by provision No. 1.166 of the ITU Radio Regulations as “the effect of unwanted energy due to one or a combination of emissions, radiations, or inductions upon reception in a radiocommunication system, manifested by any performance degradation, misinterpretation or loss of information which could be extracted in the absence of such unwanted energy". (...) Radio Interference Page Content 3 ​ Radio interference is defined by No. 1.166 of the ITU Radio Regulations (RR) as "the effect of unwanted energy due to one or a combination of emissions, radiations, or inductions upon reception in a radiocommunication system, manifested by any performance degradation, misinterpretation or loss of information which could be extracted in the absence of such unwanted energy".    (...) Harmful interference can have both short-term consequences (in degradation of service etc.) or long-term effects (jeopardizing dependent services or incentives for future investments). 
Language:English
Score: 1133036.8 - https://www.itu.int/en/mediace.../Pages/radio-interference.aspx
Data Source: un
RR-2020-00013-Vol.III-EA5.pdf RES167-1 RESOLUTION 167 (WRC-19) Use of the frequency band 31-31.3 GHz by high-altitude platform stations in the fixed service The World Radiocommunication Conference (Sharm el-Sheikh, 2019), that there is a need for greater broadband connectivity in underserved communities and in rural and remote areas; that WRC-15 invited the ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) to study additional spectrum needs for fixed high-altitude platform station (HAPS) links to provide broadband connectivity and to facilitate the use of HAPS links on a global or regional basis, recognizing that the existing HAPS identifications were established without reference to todays broadband capabilities; that ITU-R has conducted studies dealing with compatibility between systems using HAPS and passive services in the frequency band 31.3-31.8 GHz, leading to Report ITU-R F.2473; that Report ITU-R F.2439 provides deployment and technical characteristics of broadband HAPS systems; that Report ITU-R F.2438 contains worldwide spectrum needs of HAPS systems; that ITU-R has conducted studies dealing with sharing between systems using HAPS in the fixed service and other types of systems in the fixed service in the frequency band 31-31.3 GHz, leading to Report ITU-R F.2473, that current technologies, such as HAPS, can be used to deliver broadband applications for broadband connectivity and disaster-recovery communications with minimal ground network infrastructure, that, during periods of rain, the equivalent isotropically radiated power (e.i.r.p.) of the HAPS beam suffering rain fade may be increased by a level commensurate with the level of rain fade, by up to 20 dB above the e.i.r.p. under clear-sky conditions indicated in Appendix 4, that WRC-2000 adopted No. 5.543A, which was modified at WRC-03 and then again at WRC-07 to permit the use of HAPS in the fixed service in the frequency band 31-31.3 GHz in certain Region 1 and 3 countries on a non-harmful interference, non-protection basis; that the frequency band 31-31.3 GHz is widely used or planned to be used by a number of different services and a number of other types of applications in the fixed service; - 165 - RES167-2 that, while the decision to deploy HAPS can be taken on a national basis, such deployment may affect neighbouring administrations, particularly in small countries; that results of some ITU-R studies indicate that, in the frequency band 31-31.3 GHz, sharing between fixed-service systems using HAPS and other conventional fixed-service systems in the same area is subject to appropriate interference mitigation techniques to be developed and implemented, 1 that, for the purpose of protecting fixed-service systems in the territory of other administrations in the frequency band 31-31.3 GHz, the power flux-density (pfd) level per HAPS produced at the surface of the Earth in the territory of other administrations shall not exceed the following limits, developed for clear-sky conditions, unless the explicit agreement of the affected administration is provided at the time of notification of HAPS: 0.875 143 dB(W/(m² · MHz)) for 0° < 8° 2.58 156.6 dB(W/(m² · MHz)) for 8° < 20° 0.375 112.5 dB(W/(m² · MHz)) for 20° < 60° 90 dB(W/(m² · MHz)) for 60° 90° where is the angle of arrival of the incident wave above the horizontal plane, in degrees; 2 that, with regard to the protection of fixed-service stations with pointing elevation beyond 5°, an administration believing that unacceptable interference may still be caused shall, within four months of the date of publication of the relevant International Frequency Information Circular (BR IFIC), provide its comments with the relevant justification to the notifying administration; 3 that, in order to ensure the protection of the Earth-exploration satellite service (EESS) (passive), the level of unwanted power density in the frequency band 31.3-31.8 GHz into the antenna of a HAPS ground station operating in the frequency band 31-31.3 GHz shall be limited to 83 dB(W/200 MHz) under clear-sky conditions, and may be increased under rainy conditions to mitigate fading due to rain, provided that the effective impact on the passive satellite does not exceed the impact under clear-sky conditions; 4 that, in order to ensure the protection of the EESS (passive), the level of unwanted emission e.i.r.p. density per HAPS transmitter operating in the frequency band 31-31.3 GHz into the frequency band 31.3-31.8 GHz shall be limited to: 13.1 dB(W/200 MHz) for 4.53° < 22° 35.1 dB(W/200 MHz) for 22° < 90° where is the elevation angle in degrees at the platform height; 5 that, in order to ensure the protection of the radio astronomy service (RAS), the pfd level produced by any HAPS ground station operating in the frequency band 31-31.3 GHz at RAS station locations at a height of 50 m shall not exceed 141 dB(W/(m2 · 500 MHz)) in the frequency band 31.3-31.8 GHz; this limit relates to the pfd which would be obtained under assumed propagation conditions predicted by the most recent version of Recommendation ITU-R P.452 using a time percentage of 2%; - 166 - RES167-3 6 that, in order to ensure the protection of the RAS, the pfd level produced by unwanted emissions from HAPS downlink transmissions in the frequency band 31-31.3 GHz shall not exceed 171 dB(W/(m² · 500 MHz)) for continuum observations in the frequency band 31.3-31.8 GHz at an RAS station location at a height of 50 m; this limit relates to the pfd which would be obtained using a time percentage of 2% in the relevant propagation model; To verify compliance, the following formula shall be used: 2 618 2%. . . . , 10 log 4 where: : nominal unwanted emission e.i.r.p. density towards the RAS station at which the HAPS operates under clear-sky conditions in dB(W/500 MHz) in the RAS frequency band : azimuth in degrees from the HAPS towards the RAS station : elevation angle in degrees at the HAPS towards the RAS station 618 =2%: attenuation in dB from Recommendation ITU-R P.618 corresponding to = 2% of the time at the radio astronomy location : separation distance in metres between the HAPS and the RAS station ( ): pfd at the Earths surface per HAPS station in dB(W/(m² · 500 MHz)) ( ): gaseous attenuation for an elevation angle of (see Recommendation ITU-R SF.1395); 7 that 5 and 6 apply at any radio astronomy station that was in operation prior to 22 November 2019 and has been notified to the Radiocommunication Bureau (BR) in the frequency band 31.3-31.8 GHz before 22 May 2020, or at any radio astronomy station that was notified before the date of receipt of the complete Appendix 4 information for notification, for the HAPS system to which 5 and 6 apply; radio astronomy stations notified after this date may seek an agreement with administrations that have authorized HAPS; 8 that administrations planning to implement a HAPS system in the frequency band 31-31.3 GHz shall notify the frequency assignments by submitting all mandatory elements under Appendix 4 to BR for the examination of compliance with respect to this Resolution with a view to their registration in the Master International Frequency Register, to take all necessary measures to implement this Resolution. - 167 -
Language:English
Score: 1130989.6 - https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/it.../0C/0A/R0C0A00000F0054PDFE.pdf
Data Source: un
One of the companies that offer call blocking applications reportedly blocked and identified nearly 18 billion unwanted calls in 2018.4 Local issues While unwanted calls are a common problem in many countries, the sectors of the economy, the topics that most bother consumers, and the means of contacting the receiver, usually 3 FCC. (...) Approach strategies Approaches to solving the problem of unwanted calls in the world involve market players, telecommunication networks, and users. (...) It aims to guide users on how to act to prevent unwanted calls or to help them defend against scams.
Language:English
Score: 1125171.1 - https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/it.../07/27/D07270000010001PDFE.pdf
Data Source: un