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They mirror the extent of unmet need for effective contraception either to delay pregnancies and space births (mistimed fertility) or to stop childbearing (unwanted fertility). (...) If contraception 5-4 is introduced to such a population, and the contraception is 100% effective, then, the actual unwanted fertility is equal to the product of the proportion of married women who are not using contraceptives after completing their desired family size. (...) At this stage, the most popular contraceptive methods are likely to be effective but temporary methods. Secondly, we expect the level of unwanted fertility to increase, reflecting a downward trends in fertility preference.
Language:English
Score: 1230757.9 - https://www.un.org/development...nted_childbearing_adetunji.pdf
Data Source: un
Factors that raise fertility include high levels of unplanned pregnancies and unwanted births (increasing the TFR in the United States by an estimated 10–15 per cent) and very modest effects of additional births to balance the gender composition of offspring (increasing fertility by about 2 per cent). (...) The higher fertility in the more conservative states is likely due to a combination of factors: higher intended fertility, higher unwanted fertility, less fertility postponement and less competition with other values. (...) In fact, much of the educational effect on underachieving fertility intentions is explained by the continued postponement of marriage and fertility — many of these postponed births become fertility forgone.
Language:English
Score: 1225822.8 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...icy_Briefs/PB_UnitedStates.pdf
Data Source: un
A further challenge is that various “lock-in” effects can be observed in the present system. In case the system would be adjusted to allow for longer- term fishing rights, the design of such a system is of critical importance in order to avoid unwanted effects. 1. (...) In case the system would be adjusted to allow for longer-term fishing rights, the design of such a system is of critical importance in order to avoid unwanted effects. Such unwanted effects include, for example, a too high concentration of fishing rights by certain actors and/or in certain regions and unwanted structural change. (...)  System design and social goals: How can goals regarding consideration and protection of the small scale fisheries be met in a right-based system? How can unwanted structural change connected with unwanted capitalization and high prices be avoided?
Language:English
Score: 1225550.3 - https://www.fao.org/fishery/st...er-rights/root/volume4/C47.pdf
Data Source: un
. • Broadcast receivers are included • Radar equipement are included • Equipement operating below 9 KHz are included • Equipement using radio as secondary function are included • Wired terminal equipement are excluded • Acessories are excluded (passive antennas, power suplies, …) • New essential requirement 3.2: increased emphasis on efficient and effective use of the spectrum. In particular radio equipment needs to demonstrate the performance of its receiver part, as well as its transmitter Page 5 General principles for product compliance General principles for product compliance  Article 3.1(a) Health and Safety • Article 3.1(b) EMC • Article 3.2 Radio essential requirements • Article 3.3 additional requirements when invoked by the European Commission Page 6 Transmitter requirement s • The article 3.2 of the RED sets out the requirements for the efficient use of spectrum. • These requirements are mandatory for the transmitter. (...) Page 7 Example WLAN equipements (ISM band 2.4 GHZ) • Radio : EN 300 328 • + ERC 70-03 recommandation • EMC: EN 301 489-17 & EN 301 489-01 • Safety: EN 60950 • Health: EN 50364 Page 8 Harmonized standard EN 300 328 Essential radio test suites Test specifcation reference RF output power (EIRP) 5.3.2 Maximum specral power density 5.3.3 Occupied Bandwidth 5.3.8 Unwanted emissions in out off band domain 5.3.9 Unwanted emissions in Spurious domain 5.3.10 Page 9 Equivalent isotropic radiated power (EIRP) •Is also called the Effective Isotropic Radiated Power, and represents the amount of power that an ideal isotropic antenna could emit. (...) Page 10 Step 1 Distance D Plan de masse V ar ia b le a n te n n a le n gh fr o m 1 t o 4 m Measurement antenna DUT at 1.5 m from the floor and radiated at Po Step 1 Spectrum analyser Page 11 Step 2 Plan de masse Substituation antenna Step 2 Signal Generator Spectrum analyser Distance D V ar ia b le a n te n n a le n gh fr o m 1 t o 4 m Page 12 Substitution method The substitution measurement is defined through the following steps: a) Measure each significant emission (where the total emitted power will exceed 20 mW ) by maximising emission level (rotating turntable with EUT on it, moving receiving antenna 1m - 4m in b) Replace the EUT by an antenna with a known gain which had also be obtained in free space environment and adjust the signal generator output level to the same receiver level for each emission as previously determined Page 13 EIRP = SG - Atr + Gtr Where SG : Signal generator output level Atr : Attenuation of the cable between SG and transmit antenna Gtr : Gain of the transmitting antenna (isotropic antenna) Page 14 Occupied Channel Bandwidth • Is the width of the frequency band which is just sufficient to ensure the transmission of information at the rate and with the quality required under specified conditions • Applies to FHSS and non-FHSS • Based on 99% bandwidth • Must fall completely within band (band edge) • Partly replaces the old Frequency Range test • For non-Adaptive FHSS with >10 mW, e.i.r.p. • Limit: <5 MHz • For non-Adaptive non-FHSS with >10 mW, e.i.r.p. • Limit: <20 MHz Page 15 Unwanted emissions • It present any emission outside the necessary bandwidth of the transmission all emissions except the fundamental Consist of radiated spurious emissions and out-of-band emissions.
Language:English
Score: 1222409.8 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/T...sentation%2003%2006%202016.pdf
Data Source: un
SM.1541 : Unwanted emissions in the out-of-band domain   Français   Español     Home : ITU-R : Publications : Recommendations : SM Series : SM.1541 Recently posted  -  Search Recommendations     SM.1541 : Unwanted emissions in the out-of-band domain Recommendation SM.1541 Approved in 2015-08 Managed by R00-SG01 Main Number Title Status Questions SM.1541-6 (08/2015)   Unwanted emissions in the out-of-band domain   In force (Main) N/A       Previous versions Number Title Status Questions SM.1541-5 (08/2013)   Unwanted emissions in the out-of-band domain   Superseded N/A   SM.1541-0 (07/01)   Unwanted emissions in the out-of-band domain   Superseded 211/1   SM.1541-4 (09.11)   Unwanted emissions in the out-of-band domain   Superseded N/A   SM.1541-3 (01/11)   Unwanted emissions in the out-of-band domain   Superseded N/A   SM.1541-2 (05/06)   Unwanted emissions in the out-of-band domain   Superseded 211/1   SM.1541-1 (11/02)   Unwanted emissions in the out-of-band domain   Superseded 211/1     Top  -  Feedback  -  Contact us  -  Copyright © ITU  2008 All Rights Reserved Contact for this page :  ITU-R Web coordinator Updated : 2020-06-09  
Language:English
Score: 1221200.6 - https://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-SM.1541
Data Source: un
RR-2020-00013-Vol.III-EA5.pdf RES167-1 RESOLUTION 167 (WRC-19) Use of the frequency band 31-31.3 GHz by high-altitude platform stations in the fixed service The World Radiocommunication Conference (Sharm el-Sheikh, 2019), that there is a need for greater broadband connectivity in underserved communities and in rural and remote areas; that WRC-15 invited the ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) to study additional spectrum needs for fixed high-altitude platform station (HAPS) links to provide broadband connectivity and to facilitate the use of HAPS links on a global or regional basis, recognizing that the existing HAPS identifications were established without reference to todays broadband capabilities; that ITU-R has conducted studies dealing with compatibility between systems using HAPS and passive services in the frequency band 31.3-31.8 GHz, leading to Report ITU-R F.2473; that Report ITU-R F.2439 provides deployment and technical characteristics of broadband HAPS systems; that Report ITU-R F.2438 contains worldwide spectrum needs of HAPS systems; that ITU-R has conducted studies dealing with sharing between systems using HAPS in the fixed service and other types of systems in the fixed service in the frequency band 31-31.3 GHz, leading to Report ITU-R F.2473, that current technologies, such as HAPS, can be used to deliver broadband applications for broadband connectivity and disaster-recovery communications with minimal ground network infrastructure, that, during periods of rain, the equivalent isotropically radiated power (e.i.r.p.) of the HAPS beam suffering rain fade may be increased by a level commensurate with the level of rain fade, by up to 20 dB above the e.i.r.p. under clear-sky conditions indicated in Appendix 4, that WRC-2000 adopted No. 5.543A, which was modified at WRC-03 and then again at WRC-07 to permit the use of HAPS in the fixed service in the frequency band 31-31.3 GHz in certain Region 1 and 3 countries on a non-harmful interference, non-protection basis; that the frequency band 31-31.3 GHz is widely used or planned to be used by a number of different services and a number of other types of applications in the fixed service; - 165 - RES167-2 that, while the decision to deploy HAPS can be taken on a national basis, such deployment may affect neighbouring administrations, particularly in small countries; that results of some ITU-R studies indicate that, in the frequency band 31-31.3 GHz, sharing between fixed-service systems using HAPS and other conventional fixed-service systems in the same area is subject to appropriate interference mitigation techniques to be developed and implemented, 1 that, for the purpose of protecting fixed-service systems in the territory of other administrations in the frequency band 31-31.3 GHz, the power flux-density (pfd) level per HAPS produced at the surface of the Earth in the territory of other administrations shall not exceed the following limits, developed for clear-sky conditions, unless the explicit agreement of the affected administration is provided at the time of notification of HAPS: 0.875 143 dB(W/(m² · MHz)) for 0° < 8° 2.58 156.6 dB(W/(m² · MHz)) for 8° < 20° 0.375 112.5 dB(W/(m² · MHz)) for 20° < 60° 90 dB(W/(m² · MHz)) for 60° 90° where is the angle of arrival of the incident wave above the horizontal plane, in degrees; 2 that, with regard to the protection of fixed-service stations with pointing elevation beyond 5°, an administration believing that unacceptable interference may still be caused shall, within four months of the date of publication of the relevant International Frequency Information Circular (BR IFIC), provide its comments with the relevant justification to the notifying administration; 3 that, in order to ensure the protection of the Earth-exploration satellite service (EESS) (passive), the level of unwanted power density in the frequency band 31.3-31.8 GHz into the antenna of a HAPS ground station operating in the frequency band 31-31.3 GHz shall be limited to 83 dB(W/200 MHz) under clear-sky conditions, and may be increased under rainy conditions to mitigate fading due to rain, provided that the effective impact on the passive satellite does not exceed the impact under clear-sky conditions; 4 that, in order to ensure the protection of the EESS (passive), the level of unwanted emission e.i.r.p. density per HAPS transmitter operating in the frequency band 31-31.3 GHz into the frequency band 31.3-31.8 GHz shall be limited to: 13.1 dB(W/200 MHz) for 4.53° < 22° 35.1 dB(W/200 MHz) for 22° < 90° where is the elevation angle in degrees at the platform height; 5 that, in order to ensure the protection of the radio astronomy service (RAS), the pfd level produced by any HAPS ground station operating in the frequency band 31-31.3 GHz at RAS station locations at a height of 50 m shall not exceed 141 dB(W/(m2 · 500 MHz)) in the frequency band 31.3-31.8 GHz; this limit relates to the pfd which would be obtained under assumed propagation conditions predicted by the most recent version of Recommendation ITU-R P.452 using a time percentage of 2%; - 166 - RES167-3 6 that, in order to ensure the protection of the RAS, the pfd level produced by unwanted emissions from HAPS downlink transmissions in the frequency band 31-31.3 GHz shall not exceed 171 dB(W/(m² · 500 MHz)) for continuum observations in the frequency band 31.3-31.8 GHz at an RAS station location at a height of 50 m; this limit relates to the pfd which would be obtained using a time percentage of 2% in the relevant propagation model; To verify compliance, the following formula shall be used: 2 618 2%. . . . , 10 log 4 where: : nominal unwanted emission e.i.r.p. density towards the RAS station at which the HAPS operates under clear-sky conditions in dB(W/500 MHz) in the RAS frequency band : azimuth in degrees from the HAPS towards the RAS station : elevation angle in degrees at the HAPS towards the RAS station 618 =2%: attenuation in dB from Recommendation ITU-R P.618 corresponding to = 2% of the time at the radio astronomy location : separation distance in metres between the HAPS and the RAS station ( ): pfd at the Earths surface per HAPS station in dB(W/(m² · 500 MHz)) ( ): gaseous attenuation for an elevation angle of (see Recommendation ITU-R SF.1395); 7 that 5 and 6 apply at any radio astronomy station that was in operation prior to 22 November 2019 and has been notified to the Radiocommunication Bureau (BR) in the frequency band 31.3-31.8 GHz before 22 May 2020, or at any radio astronomy station that was notified before the date of receipt of the complete Appendix 4 information for notification, for the HAPS system to which 5 and 6 apply; radio astronomy stations notified after this date may seek an agreement with administrations that have authorized HAPS; 8 that administrations planning to implement a HAPS system in the frequency band 31-31.3 GHz shall notify the frequency assignments by submitting all mandatory elements under Appendix 4 to BR for the examination of compliance with respect to this Resolution with a view to their registration in the Master International Frequency Register, to take all necessary measures to implement this Resolution. - 167 -
Language:English
Score: 1220200.5 - https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/it.../0C/0A/R0C0A00000F0054PDFE.pdf
Data Source: un
Children and adolescents need to be recognised as rights holders, not just in protection from Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies, but also in protection of their rights to information, health and privacy. Adolescents under 16 who currently are considered to illegally engage in sexual activity are not able to access information and health services related to sex, and risk having unsafe abortions, carry unwanted pregnancies and are in jeopardy of contracting STIs. (...) We must discuss whether or not prohibiting it by law is the most effective way to protect them. We must also involve them in decision making and policy processes to hear their views and ensure they participate in the creation of policies that affect them.
Language:English
Score: 1217426.4 - https://www.unicef.org/zimbabw...on-health-light-marriages-bill
Data Source: un
M.1580 : Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Français   Español     Home : ITU-R : Publications : Recommendations : M Series : M.1580 Recently posted  -  Search Recommendations     M.1580 : Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000 Recommendation M.1580 Approved in 2014-02 Managed by R00-SG05 Main Number Title Status Questions M.1580-5 (02/2014)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   In force (Main) N/A       Draft Number Title Status Questions M.5/BL/9   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Draft N/A       Previous versions Number Title Status Questions M.1580-0 (07/02)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Superseded N/A   M.1580-1 (08/05)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Superseded N/A   M.1580-2 (10/07)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT 2000   Superseded 229/8   M.1580-4 (03/12)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Superseded 229-2/5   M.1580-3 (10/09)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT- 2000   Superseded 229/5     Top  -  Feedback  -  Contact us  -  Copyright © ITU  2008 All Rights Reserved Contact for this page :  ITU-R Web coordinator Updated : 2016-09-20  
Language:English
Score: 1213796.1 - https://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-M.1580
Data Source: un
M.1580 : Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Français   Español     Home : ITU-R : Publications : Recommendations : M Series : M.1580 Recently posted  -  Search Recommendations     M.1580 : Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000 Recommendation M.1580 Approved in 2014-02 Managed by R00-SG05 Main Number Title Status Questions M.1580-5 (02/2014)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   In force (Main) N/A       Draft Number Title Status Questions M.5/BL/9   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Draft N/A       Previous versions Number Title Status Questions M.1580-0 (07/02)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Superseded N/A   M.1580-1 (08/05)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Superseded N/A   M.1580-2 (10/07)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT 2000   Superseded 229/8   M.1580-4 (03/12)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Superseded 229-2/5   M.1580-3 (10/09)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of base stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT- 2000   Superseded 229/5     Top  -  Feedback  -  Contact us  -  Copyright © ITU  2008 All Rights Reserved Contact for this page :  ITU-R Web coordinator Updated : 2016-09-20  
Language:English
Score: 1213796.1 - https://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-M.1580/_page.print
Data Source: un
M.1581 : Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Français   Español     Home : ITU-R : Publications : Recommendations : M Series : M.1581 Recently posted  -  Search Recommendations     M.1581 : Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000 Recommendation M.1581 Approved in 2014-02 Managed by R00-SG05 Main Number Title Status Questions M.1581-5 (02/2014)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   In force (Main) N/A       Draft Number Title Status Questions M.5/BL/10   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Draft N/A       Previous versions Number Title Status Questions M.1581-0 (07/02)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Superseded N/A   M.1581-2 (10/07)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Superseded 229/8   M.1581-1 (06/03)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Superseded N/A   M.1581-4 (03/12)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT-2000   Superseded 229-2/5   M.1581-3 (10/09)   Generic unwanted emission characteristics of mobile stations using the terrestrial radio interfaces of IMT 2000   Superseded 229/8     Top  -  Feedback  -  Contact us  -  Copyright © ITU  2008 All Rights Reserved Contact for this page :  ITU-R Web coordinator Updated : 2016-09-14  
Language:English
Score: 1213796.1 - https://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-M.1581
Data Source: un