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. * Committed to Connecting the WorldOffice/home WiFi Digital converged IP World Operator 2 IP core network (Converged fixed/mobi le network) Office/ home WiFi Office/home WiFi Fibre ring Fibre ring 3G/4G/WiMax mast Operator 1 IP core network (Converged fixed/mobile network) Street box WiMax TV production Radio production Point to point backhaul 3G/4G/WiMax mast Mass storage OTT service providers Smart phone, tablet or lap top 3 Committed to Connecting the World 1st 750,000,000 2nd 250,000,000 3rd 110,000,000 4th 85,500,000 5th 70,500,000 6th 65,000,000 7th 25,500,000 8th 20,500,000 9th 19,500,000 10th 17,500,000 11th 12,500,000 12th 12,000,000 13th 7,500,000 14th 5,400,000 15th 4,000,000 Top 15 Social networking sites Source eBizMBA May 2013 Committed to Connecting the World Regulator Balanced Regulation & Co/self regulation Interconnection Convergence Networks Services Competition Licensing Authorizations Institutional efficiencies Net neutrality Universal Access to broadband internet Spectrum Management Consultation Collaboration Co-operation International, Regional Consumer protection Inappropriate content, unwanted communications, privacy Evolving role of regulators 4 Committed to Connecting the World Regulator Balanced Regulation & Co/self regulation Interconnection Convergence Networks Services Competition Licensing Authorizations Institutional efficiencies Net neutrality Universal Access to broadband internet Spectrum Management Consultation Collaboration Co-operation International, Regional Consumer protection Inappropriate content, unwanted communications, privacy 4th Generation Regulator Economic and Social Development 4th Generation Regulator Committed to Connecting the World Medical experts NetDoctor southAfrica.info 3G/4G/WiMax Network Satellite Wire/cable Optical fibre Education Community Access Sustainable broadband needs community wide involvement 5 Committed to Connecting the World International Telecommunication Union Conclusion  Competition & Technology development  Convergence of services  Realisation of benefits to economic & social development  4th Generation Regulator implementing Government Policy  Balancing regulatory measures to achieve objectives Committed to Connecting the World With effective cooperation of all stakeholders and the right balance of regulation, together we will maximise the immense benefit the digital ecosystem can bring to the people of our world.
Language:English
Score: 1104947.7 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/C...esentation_Session_8_Horne.pdf
Data Source: un
Director-General Governance Transparency Internal Oversight Service Key Figures & Budget Funding needs & data What we do Expertise Education Culture Natural Sciences Social and Human Sciences Communication & Information Major Initiatives Revive the Spirit of Mosul Futures of Education Fostering freedom of expression Building knowledge societies Sustainable Cities Preventing violent extremism Our commitment to biodiversity Advancing the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda Specialized Areas Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Global Education Monitoring Report Global Priorities Africa Gender Equality Where we work Member States Field Offices National Commissions Ocean & Climate Platform Networks International Coalition of Inclusive and Sustainable Cities – ICCAR UNESCO Associated Schools Network Education for Sustainable Development Network UNITWIN – UNESCO Chairs UNEVOC - International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training Institutes UIS - UNESCO Institute for Statistics IIEP - International Institute for Educational Planning ICTP - International Centre for Theoretical Physics UIL - Institute for Lifelong Learning IBE - International Bureau of Education IICBA - International Institute for Capacity-Building in Africa IITE - Institute for Information Technologies in Education IESALC - International Institute for Higher Education in Latin America and the Caribbean MGIEP - Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Education for Peace and Sustainable Development Partners Introducing Partnerships Public partners Business, cities, young people UNESCO family partners and networks NGO's and Foundations Goodwill Ambassadors Join us Careers Procurement Fellowships Internship Resources For Journalists: Press room For Delegates: UNESCO.int Documents & Publications - UNESDOC Online Bookshop The UNESCO Courier Conventions Official Photos UNESCO Lists World Heritage Intangible Cultural Heritage Creative Cities Memory of the World Register Biosphere Reserves UNESCO Global Geoparks UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger Data and Statistics UNESCO Institute for Statistics Observatory of Killed Journalists World Inequality Database on Education Transparency portal Archives UNESCO Archives Digital Archives Library UNESCO Library UNESDOC Digital Library Multimedia collections Capacity building and planning workshop in response to gender-based violence in schools × When : from Tuesday 14 February, 2017 08:00 to Saturday 18 February, 2017 17:55 Type of event : Category 7-Seminar and Workshop Where : Dakar Hôtel LE NDIAMBOUR, Dakar, Senegal Contact : x.hospital@unesco.org The meeting aims to strengthen the capacities of the executives of ministries in charge of education (Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Senegal and Togo) for the implementation of effective programs in emerging areas related to reproductive health, including gender-based violence, including early and unwanted pregnancies in schools. (...) It is a technical workshop for sharing and capacity building with key players in the education sector of these countries, Côte d'Ivoire and partners that support initiatives in response to school-related gender-based violence and unwanted pregnancies in Western and Central Africa.
Language:English
Score: 1092494 - https://en.unesco.org/events/c...-gender-based-violence-schools
Data Source: un
Phone: (212) 421-08 28 Fax (212) 688-0 554 www.norway-un org www.norway-un country was also blessed with researchers who documented people's living conditions, including sexual behavior, and the effects of various interventions. Courageous politicians insisted that it was a moral imperative to work towards the best outcomes, even if it meant taking up sensitive issues. (...) In this way the women's rights to safely and legally terminate an unwanted pregnancy is secured. Since 2002 young girls between 16 and 19 years of age can get contraceptives free of charge, and condoms are also distributed at no cost for young people. Sexuality education for youth is done both by government and by NGOs, and is generally focusing on the duality of sexual pleasure on one hand and the need for protection against unwanted sexual activities, sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies on the other.
Language:English
Score: 1088965.8 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...country/agendaitem4/norway.pdf
Data Source: un
ITU-R RS Series Recommendations: New Documents ITU-R RS Series Recommendations: New Documents Recently Posted Recommendations [ RS.1861-1 (12/2021) ] - Typical technical and operational characteristics of Earth exploration-satellite service (passive) systems using allocations between 1.4 and 275 GHz Typical technical and operational characteristics of Earth exploration-satellite service (passive) systems using allocations between 1.4 and 275 GHz [ RS.2105-1 (12/2021) ] - Typical technical and operational characteristics of Earth exploration-satellite service (active) systems using allocations between 432 MHz and 238 GHz Typical technical and operational characteristics of Earth exploration-satellite service (active) systems using allocations between 432 MHz and 238 GHz [ RS.1263-2 (12/2018) ] - Interference criteria for meteorological aids operated in the 400.15-406 MHz and 1 668.4-1 700 MHz bands Interference criteria for meteorological aids operated in the 400.15-406 MHz and 1 668.4-1 700 MHz bands [ RS.2042-1 (12/2018) ] - Typical technical and operating characteristics for spaceborne radar sounder systems using the 40-50 MHz band Typical technical and operating characteristics for spaceborne radar sounder systems using the 40-50 MHz band [ RS.1883-1 (12/2018) ] - Use of remote sensing systems in the study of climate change and the effects thereof Use of remote sensing systems in the study of climate change and the effects thereof [ RS.1859-1 (12/2018) ] - Use of remote sensing systems for data collection to be used in the event of natural disasters and similar emergencies Use of remote sensing systems for data collection to be used in the event of natural disasters and similar emergencies [ RS.1165-3 (12/2018) ] - Technical characteristics and performance criteria for systems in the meteorological aids service in the 403 MHz and 1 680 MHz bands Technical characteristics and performance criteria for systems in the meteorological aids service in the 403 MHz and 1 680 MHz bands [ RS.2106-0 (07/2017) ] - Detection and resolution of radio frequency interference to Earth exploration-satellite service (passive) sensors Detection and resolution of radio frequency interference to Earth exploration-satellite service (passive) sensors [ RS.2105-0 (07/2017) ] - Typical technical and operational characteristics of Earth exploration-satellite service (active) systems using allocations between 432 MHz and 238 GHz Typical technical and operational characteristics of Earth exploration-satellite service (active) systems using allocations between 432 MHz and 238 GHz [ RS.1260-2 (09/2017) ] - Feasibility of sharing between active spaceborne sensors and other services in the range 420-470 MHz Feasibility of sharing between active spaceborne sensors and other services in the range 420-470 MHz [ RS.2017-0 (08/2012) ] - Performance and interference criteria for satellite passive remote sensing Performance and interference criteria for satellite passive remote sensing [ RS.2066-0 (12/2014) ] - Protection of the radio astronomy service in the frequency band 10.6-10.7 GHz from unwanted emissions of synthetic aperture radars operating in the Earth exploration-satellite service (active) around 9 600 MHz Protection of the radio astronomy service in the frequency band 10.6-10.7 GHz from unwanted emissions of synthetic aperture radars operating in the Earth exploration-satellite service (active) around 9 600 MHz [ RS.2064-0 (12/2014) ] - Typical technical and operating characteristics and frequency bands used by space research service (passive) observation systems Typical technical and operating characteristics and frequency bands used by space research service (passive) observation systems [ RS.2065-0 (12/2014) ] - Protection of space research service (SRS) space-to-Earth links in the 8 400-8 450 MHz and 8 450-8 500 MHz bands from unwanted emissions of synthetic aperture radars operating in the Earth exploration-satellite service (active) around 9 600 MHz Protection of space research service (SRS) space-to-Earth links in the 8 400-8 450 MHz and 8 450-8 500 MHz bands from unwanted emissions of synthetic aperture radars operating in the Earth exploration-satellite service (active) around 9 600 MHz [ RS.2042 (02/2014) ] - Typical technical and operating characteristics for spaceborne radar sounder systems using the 40-50 MHz band Typical technical and operating characteristics for spaceborne radar sounder systems using the 40-50 MHz band [ RS.2043 (02/14) ] - Characteristics of synthetic aperture radars operating in the Earth exploration-satellite service (active) around 9 600 MHz Characteristics of synthetic aperture radars operating in the Earth exploration-satellite service (active) around 9 600 MHz [ RS.515-5 (08/2012) ] - Frequency bands and bandwidths used for satellite passive remote sensing Frequency bands and bandwidths used for satellite passive remote sensing [ RS.515-4 (05/03) ] - Frequency bands and bandwidths used for satellite passive sensing Frequency bands and bandwidths used for satellite passive sensing [ RS.1884 (02/11) ] - Methodology for determining terrestrial and space-to-Earth sharing and coordination criteria for meteorological aids in the 400.15-406 MHz and 1 668 1 700 MHz bands Methodology for determining terrestrial and space-to-Earth sharing and coordination criteria for meteorological aids in the 400.15-406 MHz and 1 668 1 700 MHz bands [ RS.1881-0 (02/2011) ] - Protection criteria for arrival time difference receivers operating in the meteorological aids service in the frequency band 9-11.3 kHz Protection criteria for arrival time difference receivers operating in the meteorological aids service in the frequency band 9-11.3 kHz [ RS.1883-0 (02/2011) ] - Use of remote sensing systems in the study of climate change and the effects thereof Use of remote sensing systems in the study of climate change and the effects thereof [ RS.1813-1 (02/2011) ] - Reference antenna pattern for passive sensors operating in the Earth exploration-satellite service (passive) to be used in compatibility analyses in the frequency range 1.4-100 GHz Reference antenna pattern for passive sensors operating in the Earth exploration-satellite service (passive) to be used in compatibility analyses in the frequency range 1.4-100 GHz [ RS.1861-0 (01/2010) ] - Typical technical and operational characteristics of Earth exploration-satellite service (passive) systems using allocations between 1.4 and 275 GHz Typical technical and operational characteristics of Earth exploration-satellite service (passive) systems using allocations between 1.4 and 275 GHz [ RS.1859-0 (01/2010) ] - Use of remote sensing systems for data collection to be used in the event of natural disasters and similar emergencies Use of remote sensing systems for data collection to be used in the event of natural disasters and similar emergencies [ RS.1858-0 (01/2010) ] - Characterization and assessment of aggregate interference to the Earth exploration-satellite service (passive) sensor operations from multiple sources of man-made emissions Characterization and assessment of aggregate interference to the Earth exploration-satellite service (passive) sensor operations from multiple sources of man-made emissions [ RS.1263-1 (01/2010) ] - Interference criteria for meteorological aids operated in the 400.15-406 MHz and 1 668.4-1 700 MHz bands Interference criteria for meteorological aids operated in the 400.15-406 MHz and 1 668.4-1 700 MHz bands [ RS.577-7 (02/2009) ] - Frequency bands and required bandwidths used for spaceborne active sensors operating in the Earth exploration-satellite (active) and space research (active) services Frequency bands and required bandwidths used for spaceborne active sensors operating in the Earth exploration-satellite (active) and space research (active) services [ RS.1813-0 (02/09) ] - Reference antenna pattern for passive sensors operating in the Earth exploration-satellite service (passive) to be used in compatibility analyses in the frequency range 1.4-100 GHz Reference antenna pattern for passive sensors operating in the Earth exploration-satellite service (passive) to be used in compatibility analyses in the frequency range 1.4-100 GHz [ RS.1166-4 (02/2009) ] - Performance and interference criteria for active spaceborne sensors Performance and interference criteria for active spaceborne sensors [ RS.1632-0 (06/2003) ] - Sharing in the band 5 250-5 350 MHz between the Earth exploration-satellite service (active) and wireless access systems (including radio local area networks) in the mobile service Sharing in the band 5 250-5 350 MHz between the Earth exploration-satellite service (active) and wireless access systems (including radio local area networks) in the mobile service [ RS.577-6 (03/06) ] - Frequency bands and required bandwidths used for spaceborne active sensors operating in the Earth exploration-satellite (active) and space research (active) services Frequency bands and required bandwidths used for spaceborne active sensors operating in the Earth exploration-satellite (active) and space research (active) services [ RS.1804-0 (06/07) ] - Technical and operational characteristics of Earth exploration-satellite service (EESS) systems operating above 3 000 GHz Technical and operational characteristics of Earth exploration-satellite service (EESS) systems operating above 3 000 GHz [ RS.1803-0 (06/07) ] - Technical and operational characteristics for passive sensors in the Earth exploration-satellite (passive) service to facilitate sharing of the 10.6-10.68 GHz and 36-37 GHz bands with the fixed and mobile services Technical and operational characteristics for passive sensors in the Earth exploration-satellite (passive) service to facilitate sharing of the 10.6-10.68 GHz and 36-37 GHz bands with the fixed and mobile services [ RS.1745/SA.1745 (03/06) ] - Use of the band 1 668.4-1 710 MHz by the meteorological aids service and meteorological-satellite service (space-to-Earth) Use of the band 1 668.4-1 710 MHz by the meteorological aids service and meteorological-satellite service (space-to-Earth) [ RS.1744 (03/06) ] - Technical and operational characteristics of ground-based meteorological aids systems operating in the frequency range 272-750 THz Technical and operational characteristics of ground-based meteorological aids systems operating in the frequency range 272-750 THz [ RS.1749-0 (03/06) ] - Mitigation technique to facilitate the use of the 1 215-1 300 MHz band by the Earth exploration-satellite service (active) and the space research service (active) Mitigation technique to facilitate the use of the 1 215-1 300 MHz band by the Earth exploration-satellite service (active) and the space research service (active) [ RS.1166-3 (03/06) ] - Performance and interference criteria for active spaceborne sensors Performance and interference criteria for active spaceborne sensors [ RS.1165-2 (03/2006) ] - Technical characteristics and performance criteria for systems in the meteorological aids service in the 403 MHz and 1 680 MHz bands Technical characteristics and performance criteria for systems in the meteorological aids service in the 403 MHz and 1 680 MHz bands [ RS.1346-0 (02/98) ] - Sharing between the meteorological aids service and medical implant communication systems (MICS) operating in the mobile service in the frequency band 401-406 MHz Sharing between the meteorological aids service and medical implant communication systems (MICS) operating in the mobile service in the frequency band 401-406 MHz [ RS.1028-2 (05/03) ] - Performance criteria for satellite passive remote sensing Performance criteria for satellite passive remote sensing [ RS.1029-2 (05/03) ] - Interference criteria for satellite passive remote sensing Interference criteria for satellite passive remote sensing [ RS.577-5 (06/97) ] - Preferred frequencies and necessary bandwidths for spaceborne active remote sensors Preferred frequencies and necessary bandwidths for spaceborne active remote sensors [ RS.1281-0 (10/97) ] - Protection of stations in the radiolocation service from emissions from active spaceborne sensors in the band 13.4-13.75 GHz Protection of stations in the radiolocation service from emissions from active spaceborne sensors in the band 13.4-13.75 GHz [ RS.1282-0 (10/97) ] - Feasibility of sharing between wind profiler radars and active spaceborne sensors in the vicinity of 1 260 MHz Feasibility of sharing between wind profiler radars and active spaceborne sensors in the vicinity of 1 260 MHz [ RS.1280-0 (10/97) ] - Selection of active spaceborne sensor emission characteristics to mitigate the potential for interference to terrestrial radars operating in frequency bands 1-10 GHz Selection of active spaceborne sensor emission characteristics to mitigate the potential for interference to terrestrial radars operating in frequency bands 1-10 GHz [ RS.1279-0 (10/97) ] - Spectrum sharing between spaceborne passive sensors and inter-satellite links in the range 50.2-59.3 GHz Spectrum sharing between spaceborne passive sensors and inter-satellite links in the range 50.2-59.3 GHz [ RS.1261-0 (06/97) ] - Feasibility of sharing between spaceborne cloud radars and other services in the range of 92-95 GHz Feasibility of sharing between spaceborne cloud radars and other services in the range of 92-95 GHz [ RS.1260-1 (05/2003) ] - Feasibility of sharing between active spaceborne sensors and other services in the range 420-470 MHz Feasibility of sharing between active spaceborne sensors and other services in the range 420-470 MHz [ RS.1259-0 (06/97) ] - Feasibility of sharing between spaceborne passive sensors and the fixed service from 50 to 60 GHz Feasibility of sharing between spaceborne passive sensors and the fixed service from 50 to 60 GHz [ RS.1165-1 (06/97) ] - Technical characteristics and performance criteria for radiosonde systems in the meteorological aids service Technical characteristics and performance criteria for radiosonde systems in the meteorological aids service
Language:English
Score: 1084572.5 - http://www.itu.int/dms_pages/itu-r/rec/rs/R-REC-RS-RSS.xml
Data Source: un
Noticeably, caller identification (ID) spoofing is particularly effective at defeating static call blockers, thus leading to a variety of scams by avoiding identification. (...) Personal blacklist: If a user gets an unwanted call, they can quickly add it to their personal blacklist. (...) These numbers are not added to the blacklist immediately; they are anonymised and used to continuously improve call filter effectiveness. Several criteria are also checked before the relevant number is placed on the general blacklist.
Language:English
Score: 1084572.5 - https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/it...tut/T-TUT-TRUST-2021-PDF-E.pdf
Data Source: un
They should make every effort to prevent harassment from occurring, as well as to take effective and prompt protective measures once the director or supervisor becomes aware of the harassment, to ensure that behaviour of this type ceases immediately. 3. (...) It is essential to emphasize that sexual harassment refers to conduct which is unwanted and unwelcome to the recipient. As this is the key factor that distinguishes it from friendly, flirtatious or other relations that are freely and mutually entered into, it is important that a person who believes that she or he is the victim of sexual harassment clearly communicates this (either directly or through a third party) to the official engaging in the unwanted and unwelcome behaviour. 6. Some examples of physical conduct of a sexual nature, which, if unwanted and unwelcome, may constitute sexual harassment include touching, patting, pinching or any other unsolicited physical contact.
Language:English
Score: 1074091.1 - https://www.un.org/womenwatch/...cular_on_Sexual_Harassment.pdf
Data Source: un
Year of publication 2009 http://www.globalislands.net/userfiles/Tanzania-11.pdf This report of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization presents the results of analyses of changes to coastal forests (over a 50-year period) and practical actions to mitigate the unwanted effects of such change. Type of Case Printed publication (book, sourcebook, journal article…) Publisher Maantieteen laitos Region Africa Biome Tropical Forest Type Mangroves and coastal forests Primary Designated Function All Contact us Terms and Conditions Scam Alert Report Misconduct Jobs Procurement Governing Bodies Office of the Inspector General Evaluation Legal Office Ethics Office FAO organizational chart Regional Office for Africa Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean Regional Office for the Near East and North Africa Country Offices X Follow us on                                         Download our App © FAO, 2022
Language:English
Score: 1073010.6 - https://www.fao.org/sustainabl...cases/case-detail/en/c/235700/
Data Source: un
Fertility Prospects in the Arab Region UN / December 2009 12 Fertility Desires Will examine: • Wanted and unwanted TFRs • Ideal number of children • Parity- and age-specific preferences UN / December 2009 13 33 23 25 21 27 25 33 30 0 10 20 30 40 Yemen (2003) Syria (2001) Lebanon (2004) Jordan (2007) Egypt (2008) Tunisia (2001) Morocco (2003) Algeria (2002) Percent Unwanted Note: Aggregate Prospective estimates, births during 36 months before survey Figure 3: Percentage of Births Unw anted UN / December 2009 14 2.4 1.0 0.5 0.9 1.0 0.6 0.9 0.8 0 .5 1 1.5 2 Yemen (2003) Syria (2001) Lebanon (2004) Jordan (2007) Egypt (2008) Tunisia (2001) Morocco (2003) Algeria (2002) Unwanted Births per Woman Note: Aggregate Prospective estimates, births during 36 months before survey Figure 4: Unw anted Total Fertility Rate UN / December 2009 15 3.4 5.8 2.7 3.7 1.3 1.7 2.7 3.6 2.1 3.0 1.5 2.1 1.6 2.5 1.5 2.2 0 1 2 3 4 Yemen (2003) Syria (2001) Lebanon (2004) Jordan (2007) Egypt (2008) Tunisia (2001) Morocco (2003) Algeria (2002) Births per Woman Note: Aggregate Prospective estimates, 36 months before survey Figure 5: Total Fertility Rate and Components Wanted Unwanted UN / December 2009 16 4.1 4.3 3.1 3.7 2.7 2.8 2.7 3.4 0 1 2 3 4 Yemen Syria Lebanon Jordan Egypt Tunisia Morocco Algeria Mean Ideal Number Note: among women who provide a numeric ideal Figure 6: Ideal Number of Children, Women Age 20-29 UN / December 2009 17 3 0 3 4 2 4 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 Yemen Syria Lebanon Jordan Egypt Tunisia Morocco Algeria Percentage Ideal Number = 0 or 1 Note: among women who provide a numeric ideal Figure 7a: Ideal Children = 0 or 1, Women Age 20-29 UN / December 2009 18 76 88 66 77 47 52 45 69 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Yemen Syria Lebanon Jordan Egypt Tunisia Morocco Algeria Percentage Ideal Number = 3+ Note: among women who provide a numeric ideal Figure 7b: Ideal Children = 3+, Women Age 20-29 UN / December 2009 19 16 24 46 22 59 43 42 26 0 20 40 60 80 Yemen Syria Lebanon Jordan Egypt Tunisia Morocco Algeria Percent Not Wanting Source: DHS and PAPFAM survey data Figure 8a: Percentage Not Wanting Another Birth, Parity 2 UN / December 2009 20 28 47 68 38 86 65 62 46 0 20 40 60 80 Yemen Syria Lebanon Jordan Egypt Tunisia Morocco Algeria Percent Not Wanting Source: DHS and PAPFAM survey data Figure 8b: Percentage Not Wanting Another Birth, Parity 3 Fertility Prospects in the Arab Region UN / December 2009 21 Fertility Desires: summary • Moderately high unwanted fertility provides potential for further fertility decline but . . . • Ideals -- lack of attachment to small-family (two children) • Preferences – less than one-half wish to stop at: - Two children - Ages 25 - 34 Fertility Prospects in the Arab Region UN / December 2009 22 Birth Control At issue is acceptability of means for effective termination of childbearing after a small number of children (e.g. two children) • Sterilization • Induced abortion Neither method of birth control is commonly employed at present And many reasons to assume this will continue to be the case . . . 23 0 20 40 60 80 100 Djibouti (2002) Comoros (1996) Yemen (2003) U.A.E. (1995) Saudi Arabia (1996) Qatar (1998) Oman (1995) Kuwait (1996) Syria (2001) Lebanon (2004) Jordan (2007) Egypt (2008) Tunisia (2001) Morocco (2003) Algeria (2002) Percentage Source: DHS, PAPFAM, and Gulf Family Health surveys Figure 9: Contraceptive Method Distribution sterilization iud pill traditional else Fertility Prospects in the Arab Region UN / December 2009 24 Concluding Comments Significant, and possibly robust, factors acting against the achievement of low fertility in the short-term in the Arab region: • Two-child norm is not firmly and widely established • Neither sterilization nor induced abortion are generally available as methods of birth control Arguing to the contrary – sharp changes in nuptiality, and the potential for further such change.
Language:English
Score: 1072338 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...pdf/expert/15.5/Casterline.pdf
Data Source: un
They can only be attenuated either by: Frequency or Distance Any radio system must therefore take cognizance of the level of the unwanted or interfering signals it either generates or receives. (...) Every transmitter has the following potential for causing interference: 13 Unwanted emissions consist of: Out-of-band emissions: immediately outside the necessary bandwidth and resulting from the modulation process Spurious emissions: outside the necessary bandwidth, including: harmonic emissions, parasitic emissions, intermodulation products and frequency conversion products. 14 Unfortunately, Receivers cannot effectively Screen Out Signals in Adjacent Channels to the wanted Signal. (...) The Command & Control Regulation is most effective in containing interference – although most operators will prefer a Liberalized Spectrum Environment.
Language:English
Score: 1068730.3 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/proj...%20HARMFUL%20INTERFERENCE.pptx
Data Source: un
. • Reduction in investments in reproductive health can have a dramatic effect not only on gender equality and women’s empowerment, but can also hamper human capital development in countries. Zoe Matthews, PhD New York, 21-22 October 2013 Poverty: Low GNP Poor economic growth High fertility Stalled fertility decline Low educational status in population Poor reproductive health status in population Youthful population age structure and high dependency rate Failure to capitalize on the demographic dividend Inability to invest and save Low investment in basic social services e.g. education and health INCLUDING FAMILY PLANNING Population growth ESCAPE THE CYCLE – reap the demographic dividend ESCAPE THE CYCLE – invest in good health systems AAAQ Consequences of failure to extend right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of children / unmet need for family planning FINDINGS FROM MACRO LEVEL STUDIES Povent Poverty: Poor educational status Income poverty Lack of food Poor health High fertility Unsafe abortion and out of pocket costs for abortion Closely-spaced and high parity births plus associated health care costs Lack of access to contraception Lack of care for unwanted pregnancies and unwanted children Loss of earnings and economic opportunity for mothers, child labour Less investment in children – compromised girls education Sib crowding outweighs economies of scale- poor large families less able to convert consumption to wellbeing Large families and excess fertility Unwanted births Need for old age security The MICRO-level cycle between poverty and high fertility Consequences of failure to extend right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of children / unmet need for family planning FINDINGS FROM MICRO LEVEL STUDIES Hypothesising broader impacts on poverty Zoe Matthews, PhD New York, 21-22 October 2013 Challenges Duty bearers: • Quality of care (health services) and human resources Rights holders • Systematic devaluation of girls and women underlies many reproductive health challenges. Key issues include: – Early marriage, low education rates of girls; – lack of power to make decisions on matters related to one’s own health; – high rates of violence girls and women suffer within their own homes and communities Zoe Matthews, PhD New York, 21-22 October 2013 Opportunities • Upgrading of health systems is an opportunity for optimism with regards to the reproductive rights and health and development virtuous cycle. • Universal Health Coverage might be a congruent new goal • Expansion of primary education and improved access to secondary and tertiary education coverage of education from the MDGs are similarly an opportunity to foster a better enabling environment for extending women’s agency. • Accountability mechanisms are still in their infancy, but many advances in holding responsible actors to account both at local and national levels are likely to help to close the gap between the rhetoric on improving health systems and the realization of extending effective quality coverage. Zoe Matthews, PhD New York, 21-22 October 2013 A challenge and an opportunity • Large cohorts of young people Challenge: continuing low status, marginalisation, high fertility rates, note UNDER 16s Opportunity: providing rights will have a large impact through the subsequent ‘productive’ age ranges and for future children Zoe Matthews, PhD Conclusions • Reproductive rights have potentially far-reaching population and wider effects. • Yet, slow progress in women’s status, employment and the context for change will hold back these impacts. • In this context, actions to extend reproductive rights to adolescents should not be slowed or even avoided. • Future goals or targets on health need to be expressed within clear human rights language that can be understood broadly and not open to interpretation.
Language:English
Score: 1064374.5 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...M_Zoe%20Matthews%20et%20al.pdf
Data Source: un