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R Rajeshkumar Implementation & Capacity Building Working Group E-Passport validation: A practical experience Hong Kong ICAO TRIP Regional Seminar Note This is an edited version of the presentation and is cleared for public dissemination Core Concepts • Hashing – A Mathematical process applied to the process – Output is called a Message Digest – Input cannot be recreated from the output – hence one way function – Same input always gives the same output – Any change in input changes the output – Ensures that message is not tampered Core Concepts • Digital Signature – A process of encryption – Message cannot be decrypted using the key used for encryption – The two keys have a mathematical relationship with each other and form a unique pair – You keep one part of the key with you – private key – You distribute the other key to others – public key – You encrypt message with private key and send the message to others – If they can decrypt with your public key, then the message originated from you and has not been modified – Digital Signature Core Concepts • Message signing – First hash the message using a well known hashing algorithm to create a message digest – Encrypt the message digest using your private key – Send the message and the encrypted hash to recipient • Signature Verification – Decrypt the encrypted hash using the public key of the sender. (...) • One country has E-Passports with this defect Issue 4 • Wrong DN of Issuer in SOD • Instead of “cn=Country DSC, c=CC”, the DN is encoded as “c=CC, cn=Country DSC” • 11 countries have issued documents with this defect Issue 5 • DSC expires before passport – DSC should be valid as long as the passport is valid. – If not, document verification will fail • 7 countries have issued ePassports with this defect • 2 countries have this defect with a majority of documents they have issued – has been corrected now but there are still a significant number of documents in circulation with this defect. Issue 6 • Length Encoding issues – Length encoding defined by ASN.1 standards – Parsers will not handle wrong length encodings • One country has issued a batch of e-Passports with this defect Issue 7 • Single DSC to sign all E-Passports – DSCs should be changed often to prevent compromise – Reduces trust in the E-Passport of that country – E-Passports from these countries will be treated as paper passports • 5 countries have this defect Issue 8 • Missing Authority Key Identifier – AKI is used to identify the CSCA that issued the DSC – If it is missing, there is no way to complete the verification – These E-Passports will be treated as paper passports • 4 countries have this defect with all the E- Passports that they have issued Issue 9 • Country Code is wrong or missing in CSCA – Country code identifies the issuer – The code is defined in ISO 3166 and in Doc 9303 – Proper validation will flag these documents as fraudulent documents • 10 countries have issued E-Passports with this defect Issue 10 • Wrong encoding of RSA signature value – RSA signature is encoded as OctetString with length of string equal to Modulus value – Assumed to be positive integer.
Language:English
Score: 1181501.3 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...17.HongKong.Rajesh(edited).pdf
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In approaching the matter that brings us together here today, what we will be doing is taking a quantum leap and examining, from a different angle, two of the underlying concepts of international trade and balance of payments statistics, namely the notion of country of origin, and the concept of resident as opposed to non resident. (...) Statistical survey experts know very well that “if you ask the wrong person, you will get the wrong answer”. Similarly, if you analyse a phenomenon using the wrong “measurements”, you will reach the wrong conclusions. (...) Although it is true that today, the notion of resident/non resident has lost some of its relevance when it comes to understanding the microeconomic reality of world value chains, the fact remains that it is the concept of national territory that counts when it comes to public policy.
Language:English
Score: 1179280.6 - https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/sppl_e/sppl174_e.htm
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More and more modifications on engines.More and more modifications on engines. Family concept development.Family concept development. Bangkok, 6 to 7 November 2006 14 Noise Certification Workshop Difficulties for noise certificationDifficulties for noise certification Family concept: original flight test and engine static Family concept: original flight test and engine static tests of original engine type, then engine static test tests of original engine type, then engine static test of modified engine. (...) Bangkok, 6 to 7 November 2006 16 Noise Certification Workshop Difficulties for noise certification Administrative point of view Difficulties for noise certification Administrative point of view Annex 16, Chapter 1, Annex 16, Chapter 1, «« AdministrationAdministration »» paragraph 1.2:paragraph 1.2: «« Noise certification shall be granted or Noise certification shall be granted or validated by the State of Registry of an validated by the State of Registry of an aircraft on the basis of satisfactory evidence aircraft on the basis of satisfactory evidence that the aircraft complies with requirements that the aircraft complies with requirements which are at least equal to the applicable which are at least equal to the applicable Standards specified in this Annex.Standards specified in this Annex. »» Bangkok, 6 to 7 November 2006 17 Noise Certification Workshop Impact of a wrong expertiseImpact of a wrong expertise Create distortion of competition.Create distortion of competition. (...) Bangkok, 6 to 7 November 2006 18 Noise Certification Workshop Example of wrong expertiseExample of wrong expertise Deliver a noise certificate for other slap/slat Deliver a noise certificate for other slap/slat deflexion in approach than aircraft noisiest deflexion in approach than aircraft noisiest configuration for heavy aircraft.
Language:English
Score: 1179280.6 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...on-Workshop-2006/Depitre_2.pdf
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Mehdi REMAOUN First Secretary to The Sixth Committee on “Responsibility of States for internationally wrongful acts” [Agenda item 74] Trusteeship Council Chamber, 7 th October 2016 Algeria الجـزائـر بعثة الجــزائــر الدائمــة لــدى األمــم المتحدة نيويورك Permanent Mission of Algeria to the United Nations New York 2 My delegation takes note of the reports of the Secretary-General on this item, entitled “Responsibility of States for internationally wrongful acts”, contained in documents A/71/79 and A/71/80. (...) It emanates also from the general principle of bona fide, legal concept particularly relevant in matters of equity. States responsibility implies that if a State commits an internationally wrongful act against another State, it will be legally responsible for reparation.
Language:English
Score: 1161895.7 - https://www.un.org/en/ga/sixth...nts/resp_of_states/algeria.pdf
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This applies irrespective whether such wrongful act is of continuing character or consists of a single act. (...) We however doubt whether such rule could rely on the concept of the “acknowledgement” and “adoption” of predecessor’s conduct by the successor State, borrowed from Article 11 of the Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts and significantly altered. (...) It seems therefore that the issue at stake is not the continuing character of the wrongful act, but rather lasting consequences of predecessor’s wrongful act and the ability of the successor State to contribute to the elimination of these consequences (e.g. by the restitution of the status quo ante).
Language:English
Score: 1147155.1 - https://www.un.org/en/ga/sixth...ments/ilc/24mtg_czechrep_3.pdf
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This multi-stakeholder dialogue intends to elaborate the particular GGE recommendation suggesting “States should not knowingly allow their territory to be used for internationally wrongful acts using ICTs.”  With a view to foster a better understanding of this complex norm, the dialogue seeks to inform UNIDIR’s ongoing research on operationalization of the norms of responsible State behaviour. (...) PROGRAMME 13:00 – 13:55 Panel 1: The concept of the internationally wrongful act and potential thresholds triggering the GGE norm C Presenter: Dr Talita de Souza Dias (University of Oxford) Discussants:  Ms Johanna Weaver (UN Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security (GGE) Representative, Australia) Professor Zhixiong Huang (Wuhan University, Institute for Cyber Governance) 14:00 – 14:55 Panel 2: Concepts of knowledge and territory in the context of the norm Presenter: Professor Marco Roscini, Westminster Law School Discussants:  Ms Anastasiya Kazakova, Kaspersky Ms Wieteke Theeuwen, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of The Netherlands  15:00 – 16:00 Panel 3: Scope and standard of the expected State behavior Presenter: Professor Masahiro Kurosaki (National Defense Academy, Japan) Discussants:   Ms Camille Gufflet (European External Action Service) Mr Nemanja Malisevic (Microsoft) WHEN & WHERE 12 May 2021 | 13.00-16.00 CEST | Virtual Conference PARTICIPANTS Limited to Government Representatives RSVP Kindly RSVP by Friday 7 May 2021.
Language:English
Score: 1137856.25 - https://www.unidir.org/events/...ms-responsible-state-behaviour
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More and more modifications on engines.More and more modifications on engines. Family concept development.Family concept development. Montreal, October 2004 14 Noise Certification Workshop Difficulties for noise certificationDifficulties for noise certification Family concept: original flight test and engine Family concept: original flight test and engine static tests of original engine type, then static tests of original engine type, then engine static test of modified engine. engine static test of modified engine. (...) Montreal, October 2004 16 Noise Certification Workshop Difficulties for noise certification Administrative point of view Difficulties for noise certification Administrative point of view Annex 16, Chapter 1, «Annex 16, Chapter 1, « AdministrationAdministration » » paragraph 1.2:paragraph 1.2: « Noise certification shall be granted or « Noise certification shall be granted or validated by the State of Registry of an validated by the State of Registry of an aircraft on the basis of satisfactory evidence aircraft on the basis of satisfactory evidence that the aircraft complies with requirements that the aircraft complies with requirements which are at least equal to the applicable which are at least equal to the applicable Standards specified in this Annex.Standards specified in this Annex. »» Montreal, October 2004 17 Noise Certification Workshop Impact of a wrong expertiseImpact of a wrong expertise Create distortion of competition.Create distortion of competition. (...) Montreal, October 2004 18 Noise Certification Workshop Example of wrong expertiseExample of wrong expertise Deliver a noise certificate for other flap/slat Deliver a noise certificate for other flap/slat deflexion in approach than aircraft noisiest deflexion in approach than aircraft noisiest configuration for heavy aircraft.
Language:English
Score: 1136430.5 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...ionWorkshop-2004/BIP_2_1AD.pdf
Data Source: un
UN General Assembly - Legal - Sixth Committee Skip to main navigation Skip to content العربية 中文 English Français Русский Español General Assembly of the United Nations General Assembly of the United Nations Menu President About Functions and powers of the General Assembly Revitalization General Assembly Secretariat Subsidiary Organs Rules of Procedure Arrears in the Payment of Contributions (Article 19) Meetings High-Level Meetings Meetings schedule Elections Summaries Webcast UN Journal Accessibility Centre Main Committees First Committee (Disarmament & International Security) Second Committee (Economic & Financial) Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian & Cultural) Fourth Committee (Special Political & Decolonization) Fifth Committee (Administrative & Budgetary) Sixth Committee (Legal) Newsroom Documents 76th Session Agenda Resolutions All the documents of the 76th Session Search Documents by Symbol (ODS) Voting Records (Digital Library) Meeting Records (Digital Library) Archives Resolutions Index to Proceedings All Sessions Regular Sessions Special Sessions Emergency Special Sessions Search Search Search Search Sixth Committee (Legal) — 62nd session Responsibility of States for internationally wrongful acts (agenda item 78) « » Authority: resolution 59/35 Documentation A/62/62 + Corr.1 + Add.1 — Responsibility of States for internationally wrongful acts: compilation of decisions of international courts, tribunals and other bodies: report of the Secretary-General A/62/63 + Add.1 — Responsibility of States for internationally wrongful acts: comments and information received form Governments: report of the Secretary-General Summary of work Background (source: A/62/100 ) At its fifty-sixth session, in 2001, the General Assembly, under the item entitled “Report of the International Law Commission on the work of its fifty-third session”, considered chapter IV of the report of the Commission, which contained the draft articles on responsibility of States for internationally wrongful acts together with a recommendation that the Assembly take note of the draft articles and that it consider, at a later stage, the possibility of convening an international conference of plenipotentiaries to examine the draft articles on responsibility of States for internationally wrongful acts with a view to concluding a convention on the topic. At the same session, the General Assembly took note of the articles on responsibility of States for internationally wrongful acts and commended them to the attention of Governments without prejudice to the question of their future adoption or other appropriate action; and decided to include in the provisional agenda of its fifty-ninth session an item entitled “Responsibility of States for internationally wrongful acts” (resolution 56/83 ). (...) Some delegations praised the ILC for its codification of the rules on State responsibility and its strengthening of the concepts of jus cogens and the international community as a whole. 
Language:English
Score: 1132706.2 - https://www.un.org/en/ga/sixth/62/RespSt.shtml
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Also, we look forward to the outcome of the envisaged future work concerning the concept of jus cogens including the effects and consequences; and the illustrative list of jus cogens norms. (...) Chairman, It has been seen that the principle of 'responsibility' which would hold a state or organization responsible for the commission of an internationally wrongful act, was not favoured to be a part of succession in earlier attempts. (...) The Conmission s commentary to the 2001 draft articles on responsibility of States for mtemationally wrongful acts took a more nuanced view stating: "In the context of State succession, it is 'unclear' whether a new State succeeds to any State responsibility of the Predecessor State with respect to its territory".
Language:English
Score: 1111334.2 - https://www.un.org/en/ga/sixth...dfs/statements/ilc/india_3.pdf
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A CONVENTION ON THE RESPONSIBILITY OF STATES FOR INTERNATIONALLY WRONGFUL ACTS Concept Note Background This is the third in a series of events organized to create awareness on the process and prepare for the taking of a decision at the 70th session of the General Assembly on the topic of the responsibility of States for internationally wrongful acts. (...) After more than five decades of work by the International Law Commission, the General Assembly took note, in 2001, of the draft Articles adopted by the Commission and opened the way for the consideration of a future convention on the Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts. Since 2001, the draft Articles have been subject of scrutiny by doctrine, jurisprudence and State practice. (...) The 4th November event (“Containment” and “Substance”) The next 4th November event aims at further reflecting on the scope and content of a possible convention, taking into account the fact that UNGA Resolution 68/104 (2013) decided to include in the provisional agenda of its seventy-first session (2016) the item entitled “Responsibility of States for internationally wrongful acts” in order to further examine, within the framework of a working group of the Sixth Committee and with a view to taking a decision, the question of a convention on responsibility of States for internationally wrongful acts or other appropriate action on the basis of the articles.
Language:English
Score: 1107989.3 - https://www.un.org/en/ga/sixth..._responsibility_4_nov_2015.pdf
Data Source: un