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Jus cogens is a well-established concept that does not need further precision. If considered necessary, “jus cogens in international law” would appear to be sufficient. (...) It is the conviction of the Austrian delegation that what the Special Rapporteur has termed the “traditional view“ that a successor state does not succeed into the responsibility for internationally wrongful acts of a predecessor state reflects the existing state of international law. With that in mind it is hoped that the Commission’s work on this new topic will lead to a clarification of the concept of state responsibility and the effects of instances of state succession.
Language:English
Score: 1091873.2 - https://www.un.org/en/ga/sixth...s/statements/ilc/austria_3.pdf
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This view, common in traditional literature and having still some advocates, was largely based on an understanding of "State responsibility" which was very different from the concept underlying the International Law Commission's Articles on responsibility of States for internationally wrongful acts. (...) Then, why should t e State succession wipe out the consequences of an intemationally wrongful act? We concur with the Special Rapporteur's preliminary conclusion and are of the view that contemporary international law does not preclude succession in respect of secondary nghts and obligations arising from an intemationally wrongful act of the State, and we would encourage the Special Rapporteur to consider formulating a general provision encapsulatmg this thesis. (...) The Commission can simply work on the basis of an imderstanding that, as far as responsibility of States for internationally wrongful acts is concemed, it deals with the subject matter covered by its 2001 Articles.
Language:English
Score: 1073974.9 - https://www.un.org/en/ga/sixth...statements/ilc/czech_rep_3.pdf
Data Source: un
Both aid mindsets are wrong. Time and political space is essential for Afghans to make use of aid for peace- and state—building. • Recent event in Sweden: State auditors criticized lack of knowledge about NGO activities. Out of two possible solutions (demanding results from Southern partner NGOs, vs. controlling the Swedish money all the way from Stockholm to the field), the State auditors leaned towards the wrong one... No development paradigm is less prone to aid dependency – They can all use aid productively • Economic growth is essential for poverty reduction. (...) Aid is much more than bilateral state-to-state cooperation and humanitarian assistance • People’s perception of aid is wrong. – Its size (10 cents a day for each of 3 billion poor) is miniscule compared with other flows. – Aid flows through multiple channels.
Language:English
Score: 1071770.6 - https://www.un.org/en/ga/second/62/pepedersen.pdf
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We consider it prudent and Xrog^slle'dewiopm^^^^ extent each of the draft articles will constitute a case or progi or codification of International Law. of States for internationally wrongful acts, both in terms ot termino gy substance. parties. (...) It would be a mistake to establish the concept of "responsibility to protect" as a general principle of law. This "responsibility" is far from becoming a principle of International Law. It is only a concept whose characteristics, rules of application and evaluation mechanisms are far from being defined and agreed. ■. . = ,h=t thP so-called "responsibility to protect" continues to raisesrrs."?
Language:English
Score: 1071657.8 - https://www.un.org/en/ga/sixth...dfs/statements/ilc/cuba_3e.pdf
Data Source: un
Date: November 30, 2017 1 R Rajeshkumar International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Public Key Infrastructure – Basis of trust in eMRTDs ICAO TRIP: Making the Air Travel more Secure and Efficient TOWARDS A BETTER TRAVELLER IDENTIFICATION MANAGEMENT FOR ENHANCED BORDER CONTROL INTEGRITY Core Concepts • Hashing – A Mathematical process applied to the process – Output is called a Message Digest – Input cannot be recreated from the output – hence one way function – Same input always gives the same output – Any change in input changes the output – Ensures that message is not tampered Core Concepts • Digital Signature – A process of asymmetric encryption – Message cannot be decrypted using the key used for encryption – The two keys have a mathematical relationship with each other and form a unique pair – You keep one part of the key with you – private key – You distribute the other key to others – public key – You encrypt message with private key and send the message to others – If they can decrypt with your public key, then the message originated from you and has not been modified – Digital Signature Core Concepts • Message signing – First hash the message using a well known hashing algorithm to create a message digest – Encrypt the hash using your private key – Send the message and the encrypted hash to recipient • Signature Verification – Decrypt the encrypted hash using the public key of the sender. This gives you the message digest. – Hash the received message to create a new message digest. – If the two match, then the message is from the sender and has not been modified – If the decryption of the encrypted hash fails or the message digests do not match, then the message has been modified in transit Core Concepts • Public key – key pair used to sign messages (Document Signer) must be renewed regularly to avoid compromise – To avoid having to distribute these keys every time you renew them, you use a Master Key pair(Country Signer) to sign the Document Signer – Distribute Country Signer to recipients – Include the Document Signer with your message Core Concepts • Certificate Revocation List (CRL) – Any certificate that cannot be trusted must be published in CRL – Trust may be lost because of: • Suspected Compromise • Wrong issuance or issuance for different purpose • Weakness of keys Core Concepts • E-Passport – Data groups defined to hold messages • DG1 is a copy of the MRZ • DG2 holds the image of the passport holder • 16 such data groups for different pieces of information – Store the Data Groups on chip – “Logical Data Structure (LDS)” – Hash each datagroup – Encrypt all the hashes with your private key (Document Signer Certificate (DSC)) and store in the “Document Security Object (SOD)” – Store the SOD on the chip along with DSC Core Concepts • Issuance system – CSCA generation – DSC generation and distribution to Personalisation system Secure DSC generation & distribution CA Server CA HSM Offline CSCA KMS Signing Server Doc Signer HSM Perso Understanding E-Passport validation • Trust is established by proper verification of the e-Passport – Verify SOD against DSC – Verify DSC against CSCA – Verify DSC not in CRL – Check that DG hash values matches the hash values stored in SOD – Compare DG1 with MRZ – Compare DG2 with printed photo – Compare photo to holder of passport SOD is valid LDS is valid eMRTD is valid Traveller is valid Security Considerations • Five phases for security considerations – Security in Generation – Security in Transport to Personalisation systems – Proof of control over usage of Document Signer – Secure destruction of private key at end of lifetime – Monitoring of compromise and reporting Proof of control • CSCA generation and usage • DSC generation and usage • Passport issuance Border Control • eMRTD not automatically trusted • Trust depends on – Confidence in process of issuance of the document – Confidence in control over signing credentials • Asserted by published Certificate Practise Statement (CPS) and Certificate Policy (CP) – backed by independent audit • Data analysis acts as a surveillance and ensures continued trust Date 13 Contact Details Name: R Rajeshkumar Email: r.rajeshkumar@auctorizium.com
Language:English
Score: 1068713.8 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...7/Presentations/Rajesh-PKI.pdf
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Date / Time Event   13 October 2016 Thursday @ 10 AM The role of governments and all stakeholders in mobilising information and communications technologies for sustainable development ♦  concept note       ♦  programme    ♦  presentations : ICT for D: Examples in service delivery Prof. (...) Deepak Mishra, World Bank Group   19 October 2016 Wednesday @ 10 AM Sustainable strategies for eradicating poverty through youth employment and entrepreneurship ♦  concept note and programme         26 October 2016 Wednesday @ 10 AM Sovereign debt restructurings: Lessons learned from legislative steps taken by certain countries and other appropriate action to reduce the vulnerability of sovereigns to holdout creditors ♦  background note              ♦  concept note   ♦  programme-flyer               ♦  speakers' bios       ♦  presentation : Sovereign debt restructuring: What's wrong and how it can be solved? (...) Date / Time Event 28 October 2016 Friday @ 10 AM One year of Sustainable Development Goals: Where the regions are ♦  concept note       ♦  programme    ♦  presentations : Ms.
Language:English
Score: 1061774.6 - https://www.un.org/en/ga/second/71/sideevents.shtml
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I want to add that, the application of rule of law or International law and universal principles of Justice must take into account a country's historical and socio cultural contexts into consideration, because Justice is not an abstract concept, it is about accountability for the wrong doers and a form of Justice for the victims of wrong doing.
Language:English
Score: 1052964.7 - https://www.un.org/en/ga/sixth...tements/rule_of_law/rwanda.pdf
Data Source: un
Media Training CCDA-IX | Praia, Cape Verde | 14 Sept. 2021 Concept Note and Curriculum1 11 Prepared by Eugene N Nforngwa | Head, Communication and Knowledge Management BACKGROUND AND JUSTIFICATION Africa is among the regions of the world that are most vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change, owing to their exposure to extreme events and weak coping capacities. (...) Journalists who complete this training should conveniently discuss the key topics of the climate debates, frame the climate change discussion in ways that benefit African societies and recognize when the debate shifts in the wrong direction. Unlike other climate change reporting training, this is not a newswriting course. (...) The training is a series of lectures and group exercises designed to help participants share experiences and challenge pre-held conceptions. Part 1. The Essentials The morning session equips finalists with a deep understanding of the essential issues and debates surrounding the climate crisis with an emphasis on African perspectives.
Language:English
Score: 1051270.9 - https://www.uneca.org/sites/de...ideevents/Media%20Training.pdf
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They would not become one continuing wrongful act, as the Interim report of the Drafting committee suggests. (...) None of these provisions gives grounds for the use of the concept of "acknowledgment" and "adoption " as proposed in draft article 7. (...) The injured State, let us not forget, is a victim of an internationally wrongful act of the predecessor State. The Successor State, even if having international legal personality distinct from that of the predecessor State, is not entirely "out of the hook" as far as the material consequences of the said internationally wrongful act are concerned.
Language:English
Score: 1044997.6 - https://www.un.org/en/ga/sixth...ments/ilc/czech_republic_3.pdf
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WRONG Cost and time saving!!! WRONG but Contribution to enhance training quality = safety in view of further growth of global civil aviation We can not afford the accident rate to stay the same MPL is Quality driven 1-4 March 2010ICAO NGAP Symposium, Montreal 10 MPL is Quality driven Further Clarifications How many real airplane hours? (...) All questions answered in FAQ hardcopy handout 1-4 March 2010ICAO NGAP Symposium, Montreal 11 The Competency Assessment Systemp y y Consists of 4 ingredients: The training task (in the lesson description/grade g ( p g sheet) 9 KSA elements with performance criteria Levels of performance (grades)Levels of performance (grades) The norm-level of performance (on the grade sheet) Is the basis of the Student Monitoring System and the core of Competency Based Training 1-4 March 2010ICAO NGAP Symposium, Montreal 12 Principal KSA elementsp Communication Situational awareness Leadership and teamwork Workload management P bl l i d d i i kiProblem solving and decision making Transfer of knowledge Application of proceduresApplication of procedures Flight management, guidance and automation Manual aircraft control 1-4 March 2010ICAO NGAP Symposium, Montreal 13 Threat and Error Managment (TEM)g ( ) TEM is an overarching safety concept regarding aviation operations and human performance. (...) T f ilit t th i li ti i th d l t fTo facilitate their application in the development of competencies and the continuous assessment of performance in MPL and EBT they are the 9 elements of Threat and Error Management 1-4 March 2010ICAO NGAP Symposium, Montreal 15 The Total System Approachy pp These 9 terminal KSAs and their respective performance criteria are the cornerstones for: p the selection process of future airline pilots the continuous assessment during MPL the performance assessment in Evidence Based Training and Checking (EBT) the definition of instructor and examiner qualificationthe definition of instructor and examiner qualification 1-4 March 2010ICAO NGAP Symposium, Montreal 16 EASA MPL Review Board, re-established To facilitate seamless communication and exchange of experience during the implementation phase of MPL in p g p p Europe Kick-off meeting was on 20 Nov ‘09 at EASA in CGN Next official board meeting on 16-17 Mar ‘10 Results to be fed into the ICAO MPL “Proof of Concept” mechanism to facilitate a global exchange ofmechanism to facilitate a global exchange of experience 1-4 March 2010ICAO NGAP Symposium, Montreal 17 Outlook In 2014 the majority of ab-initio airline pilots will be trained according to this new competency based g p y training concept provided that the international airline training and regulating community is able to facilitate a globally harmonized and standardized implementationglobally harmonized and standardized implementation ….and avoid misuse 1-4 March 2010ICAO NGAP Symposium, Montreal 18 Our Mission Ensure a globally standardized & harmonized implementation of the MPLp Overcome the regional pilot license patchwork 1-4 March 2010ICAO NGAP Symposium, Montreal 19 The “competency based“ approach p y pp (PANS TRG, Chapter 2) By means of a task analysis the duties of a multi-crew in d j t t t ti h d fi d di tmodern jet transport operation where defined according to a flight profile and broken down to nine competency units Units were further broken down to competency elementsUnits were further broken down to competency elements The elements have been further split up into performance criteria (as observable behavior), each criteria provided with a condition statement, a standard statement and a action statement 1-4 March 2010ICAO NGAP Symposium, Montreal 20 The “competency based“ approach p y pp (PANS TRG, Chapter 2) This leads to the curriculum by defining terminal training objectives, mastery tests, training modules and devices Same aeronautical knowledge requirements as ATPLSame aeronautical knowledge requirements as ATPL All of this is summarized in the MPL Training Matrix (PANS TRG, Chapter 3-Appendix A)( ) 1-4 March 2010ICAO NGAP Symposium, Montreal 21 Flight Operations Deliverablesg p FSTD – ICAO Doc 9625 Jul 2009 FSTD – IATA Data Design Aug 2009FSTD IATA Data Design Aug 2009 Selection Criteria – IATA Guidance Material Q2 2010 MPL – IATA Guidance Material Q4 2010 EBT – Manual & PANS TRG Q3 2011 IEQ – PANS TRG Q3 2011 1-4 March 2010ICAO NGAP Symposium, Montreal 22 Thank you itqi@iata.org 1-4 March 2010ICAO NGAP Symposium, Montreal 23
Language:English
Score: 1040689.3 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...Global%20Progress%20Report.pdf
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