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SUMMARY RECORD OF THE 1205TH MEETING, HELD ON MONDAY, 14 MAY 1973 : INTERNATIONAL LAW COMMISSION, 25TH SESSION, EXTRACT FROM THE YEARBOOK OF THE INTERNATIONAL LAW COMMISSION, 1973, VOL 1
In paragraphs 66 to 70 the Special Rapporteur dealt with the concept of abuse of rights and gave his reasons for believing that it would be premature to in- clude it among the objective elements of the wrongful act. (...) It was not enough to establish clearly that every wrongful act of the State involved its international responsibility, since in practical terms that principle was the source of a new relationship between one State and another, based always on the concept of injury and reparation for injury. (...) But a distinction should be drawn between those different sorts of internationally wrongful act. 53. The Special Rapporteur appeared to consider that the element of damage or injury was contained in the concept of obligation, but that it did not constitute a third element, because it was not of a sufficiently general character.
Language:English
Score: 916411 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...?open&DS=A/CN.4/SR.1205&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
SUMMARY RECORD OF THE 1618TH MEETING, HELD ON TUESDAY, 24 JUNE 1980 : INTERNATIONAL LAW COMMISSION, 32ND SESSION, EXTRACT FROM THE YEARBOOK OF THE INTERNATIONAL LAW COMMISSION, 1980, VOL 1
It would seem logical that the concept of neces- sity should preclude wrongfulness altogether, and should not be simply a mitigating circumstance, but it was clear that the duty to compensate remained. (...) Barboza had rightly stressed the flexibility given to international law by the application of the concept of state of necessity, and emphasized that the effect of the article under consideration was to preclude responsir bility for wrongful acts rather than mitigate it. 37. (...) The Commission had managed perfectly well to avoid the similar dangers of other circumstances which pre- cluded wrongfulness. 41. Nor should the possible difficulties of the interpretation of the concept of essential interest be exaggerated.
Language:English
Score: 915793.1 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...?open&DS=A/CN.4/SR.1618&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
., securityDenial NULL, qosControlNotSupported NULL, incompleteAddress NULL, aliasesInconsistent NULL, -- multiple aliases in request -- identify distinct people routeCallToSCN SEQUENCE OF PartyNumber, exceedsCallCapacity NULL, -- destination does not have the -- capacity for this call collectDestination NULL, collectPIN NULL, genericDataReason NULL, neededFeatureNotSupported NULL, securityWrongSyncTime NULL, -- either time server problem or -- network delay securityReplay NULL, -- replay attack encountered securityWrongGeneralID NULL, -- wrong general ID securityWrongSendersID NULL, -- wrong senders ID securityIntegrityFailed NULL, -- integrity check failed securityWrongOID NULL, -- wrong token OIDs or crypto alg OIDs securityDHmismatch NULL, -- mismatch of DH parameters noRouteToDestination NULL, -- dest unreachable unAllocatedNumber NULL, -- dest number unassigned } LocationRejectReason ::= CHOICE { notRegistered NULL, invalidPermission NULL, -- exclusion by administrator or feature requestDenied NULL, -- cannot find location undefinedReason NULL, ..., securityDenial NULL, aliasesInconsistent NULL, -- multiple aliases in request -- identify distinct people routeCalltoSCN SEQUENCE OF PartyNumber, resourceUnavailable NULL, genericDataReason NULL, neededFeatureNotSupported NULL, hopCountExceeded NULL, incompleteAddress NULL, securityWrongSyncTime NULL, -- either time server problem or -- network delay securityReplay NULL, -- replay attack encountered securityWrongGeneralID NULL, -- wrong general ID securityWrongSendersID NULL, -- wrong senders ID securityIntegrityFailed NULL, -- integrity check failed securityWrongOID NULL, -- wrong token OIDs or crypto alg OIDs securityDHmismatch NULL, -- mismatch of DH parameters noRouteToDestination NULL, -- dest unreachable unAllocatedNumber NULL -- dest number unassigned } The new reason codes will be mapped to Q.850 cause codes as follows: NoRouteToDestination 3 – No Route to destination UnallocatedNumber 1 – Unallocated Number 3 terminalAlias versus endpointAlias The RRQ message in H.225.0 contains fields called “terminalAlias” and “terminalAliasPattern”. (...) This will require a few editorial changes in H.225.0 and H.323, as well. 4 Registration Time To Live H.323 version 2 introduced the concept of “lightweight RRQs” and a “time to live” field in the RRQ message, which indicates the length of time the endpoint wishes for the Gatekeeper to consider it registered.
Language:English
Score: 915354.4 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...20and%20H.225.0%20Comments.doc
Data Source: un
ICAO/McGill Symposium European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation ATM LEGAL ISSUES WHEN THINGS GO WRONG IN ATM Roderick D van Dam Head of EUROCONTROL Legal Service Introduction ANS and legal: subject in motion Why are legal issues gaining importance ? (...) Ministry of Transport) Individual civil and/or criminal liability State; Corporation civil and / or criminal liability The chain of liabilities Top Managers State Liability • Article 28: State responsibility and related Liability • Because it is the ANS Provider • And/Or because it exercises regulatory/oversight functions (negligence in the exercise of supervisory responsibilities) • Ultimate liability towards third parties (subject to a right of recourse against actual entity liable) • Civil and Criminal liabilities Delegation, Outsourcing, Privatisation, Commercialisation, etc do NOT exonerate the State from its obligations under the Chicago Convention Delegation of services and liability Delegation of air traffic services and/or buy-in of air navigation services Agreement between the Service Providers Need for States’ prior approval (for ATS: agreement for the delegation of ATS to be concluded between the States) • Clear description of services subject of the Agreement • Allocation of inter-parties liability (usually, the provider of service) EUROCONTROL Model Agreements Legal consequences Liability could be shared between different actors (State, Supranational Organisation, Air Nav Service Provider) Various types of liability Contractual liability (e.g. outsourcing contract) Non-contractual liability (mostly National law/International Agreement) Criminal liability Demonstrates difficulty in assessing liability when dealing with public/private law instruments and concepts (such as product liability, fault-based liability, etc.)
Language:English
Score: 914250.2 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...nts/2006-Conference/VanDam.pdf
Data Source: un
SUMMARY RECORD OF THE 2173RD MEETING, HELD ON WEDNESDAY, 13 JUNE 1990 : INTERNATIONAL LAW COMMISSION, 42ND SESSION, EXTRACT FROM THE YEARBOOK OF THE INTERNATIONAL LAW COMMISSION, 1990, VOL 1
Pellet) agreed with other speakers that it would probably be advisable to introduce the concept of predictability at that point in addition to the concept of causality. 43. (...) Prestige was linked to the idea of greatness, which was less impor- tant than the concept of honour and, above all, the concept of dignity. (...) Yet that did not mean that the concept of prestige in its old meaning had been completely eclipsed.
Language:English
Score: 912449.1 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...?open&DS=A/CN.4/SR.2173&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
SUMMARY RECORD OF THE 22ND MEETING : 6TH COMMITTEE, HELD AT HEADQUARTERS, NEW YORK, ON MONDAY, 1 NOVEMBER 1999, GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 54TH SESSION
With regard to the specific issues listed in paragraph 29 of the report, the Nordic countries were not convinced that a distinction between a State or States specifically injured by an internationally wrongful act and other States which had a legal interest in the performance of the relevant obligations would serve a useful purpose given the uncertainty of the concept of “other States which have a legal interest”. (...) Article 27 should be retained but its wording should be reformulated. The concept of a State’s responsibility for the aid and assistance it provided to another State in the commission of an internationally wrongful act could not be accepted without taking into account the subjective element, namely, the wrongfulness of the act, which would be sufficient in that case. (...) He nevertheless felt that the title should also contain the notion of wrongfulness. 65. Chapter V listed the circumstances precluding wrongfulness.
Language:English
Score: 911704.1 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...?open&DS=A/C.6/54/SR.22&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
SUMMARY RECORD OF THE 1545TH MEETING, HELD ON TUESDAY, 5 JUNE 1979 : INTERNATIONAL LAW COMMISSION, 31ST SESSION, EXTRACT FROM THE YEARBOOK OF THE INTERNATIONAL LAW COMMISSION, 1979, VOL 1
The reaction to an inter- nationally wrongful act might in certain circumstances require the use of force, as in the case of self-defence, but once the concept of armed force came into play one could not fail to recall the despicable interpretation which the Nazis had placed on military necessity dur- ing the Second World War. 9. (...) As far as the substance of the draft article was concerned, he considered that the concept of legiti- mate sanction required amplification with special refer- ence to the source and type of wrongfulness involved. (...) However, if the retaliatory action were out of all proportion to the original wrong (if, for example, it totally crippled the economy of the other State); then such action would be unlawful and would be covered by the concept of the legitimacy of the sanction. 17.
Language:English
Score: 911052.8 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...?open&DS=A/CN.4/SR.1545&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
SUMMARY RECORD OF THE 27TH MEETING : 6TH COMMITTEE, HELD ON FRIDAY, 4 NOVEMBER 1994, NEW YORK, GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 49TH SESSION
Therefore, a hierarchy of such wrongful acts should be established. 13. While at first glance, it seemed that the concept of the criminal responsibility of a State did not exist in international law, closer examination revealed indications that justified the present wording of draft article 19. (...) Her delegation felt that the countermeasures were wrongful acts in themselves and that their wrongfulness was not obviated by the fact that they were a response to a previous wrongful act. 22. (...) A closer link should be established between the concept of peremptory norms, or jus cogens, and the concept of an international crime.
Language:English
Score: 911023.5 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...?open&DS=A/C.6/49/SR.27&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
We can spend ages on brainstorming good (or bad) ideas, but without testing them, they are just concepts without any evidence to prove that they would work. (...) What are the costs of failed projects? It would be wrong to say that experimenting doesn’t have costs involved, it does. (...) However, equally, it would also be wrong to think that doing nothing, or waiting, would be risk-free.
Language:English
Score: 910513.9 - https://www.unhcr.org/innovati...ation-without-experimentation/
Data Source: un
SUMMARY RECORD OF THE 36TH MEETING : 6TH COMMITTEE, HELD ON FRIDAY, 8 NOVEMBER 1996, NEW YORK, GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 51ST SESSION
China suggested that, on second reading, the Commission should pay closer attention to the practicability of the concept of State crimes. The proposal by some members of the Commission to replace the expression "international crimes committed by a State" with "exceptionally serious wrongful acts of a State" deserved support. 20. (...) Turning to the consequences of internationally wrongful acts characterized as crimes, he said that one of the paradoxes or weaknesses of the draft articles was that they deduced practically no consequence from the concept of a crime. They tended to rank the concepts of crime and delict together, whether with respect to the internationally wrongful act or to reparation, whereas, at least from the standpoint of the Commission’s own logic, they ought to have defined a regime specific to the crime.
Language:English
Score: 909318.7 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...?open&DS=A/C.6/51/SR.36&Lang=E
Data Source: ods