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REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL LAW COMMISSION ON THE WORK OF ITS 46TH SESSION (1994) : TOPICAL SUMMARY OF TNE DISCUSSION HELD IN THE 6TH COMMITTEE OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY DURING ITS 49TH SESSION / PREPARED BY THE SECRETARIAT
Along the same lines, the remark was made that the concept of State crime rested on solid legal and political foundations: while crimes and delicts both involved wrongful acts committed by a State, the nature and seriousness of those acts might and indeed often did vary, so that a hierarchy of such wrongful acts should be established. (...) He stressed that certain questions had to be answered in international legal instruments (such as whether the concept of State crimes should be recognized in international law, who would have jurisdiction if that concept was recognized and whether responsibility for State crimes differed from that entailed by ordinary internationally wrongful acts) and that, given the limited number of principles of international law that were currently universally recognized and the present structure of international relations, it would be difficult to introduce the concept of criminal acts into the topic of State responsibility and to codify a series of laws for that purpose. (...) Another suggestion was to use the terminology employed in the 1949 Geneva Conventions on the protection of victims of war, which referred to "grave breaches" of the Conventions: a distinction would thus be made between "breaches" and "grave breaches", using as a criterion the degree of gravity of the wrongful act. It was also noted that mention had been made in the Commission of the concept of violation of an obligation erga omnes. 29.
Language:English
Score: 899777.6 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...pen&DS=A/CN.4/464/ADD.2&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
SUMMARY RECORD OF THE 18TH MEETING : 6TH COMMITTEE, HELD AT HEADQUARTERS, NEW YORK, ON FRIDAY, 27 OCTOBER 2000, GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 55TH SESSION
Draft article 54 introduced the new concept of collective countermeasures, which followed to a certain extent in the footsteps of the concept of collective self-defence. (...) His delegation agreed in principle with the concept of full reparation set out in article 31. (...) Increasing globalization was leading to greater interdependence and interaction between States. However, the concept of international community was too broad; it was not a legal concept.
Language:English
Score: 899571.7 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...?open&DS=A/C.6/55/SR.18&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
SUMMARY RECORD OF THE 2280TH MEETING, HELD ON THURSDAY, 2 JULY 1992 : INTERNATIONAL LAW COMMISSION, 44TH SESSION, EXTRACT FROM THE YEARBOOK OF THE INTERNATIONAL LAW COMMISSION, 1992, VOL 1
He was thinking in particular of the concept of "preventive self- defence" which had been invoked to try to justify more or less perniciously the use of force and which was no more than a perversion of the concept of self-defence. (...) It stated that " . . . the concept of 'indirectly' injured States was the fruit of a misunderstanding which derived from an in- adequate absorption of the definition of an internation- ally wrongful act, as laid down in article 3 of part 1 of the draft." (...) Lastly, draft article 5 bis was justified for the fol- lowing reasons: the concept of the "injured State" did not, ipso facto, imply equal treatment for the injured States; the use in the determination of the injured State or States of a definition stricto sensu of the internation- ally wrongful act; and the establishment, on the basis of that strict definition alone, of the rights or facultes of each State.
Language:English
Score: 899409.8 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...?open&DS=A/CN.4/SR.2280&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
Document Function Specific Standards and Technologies for Paperless Trade UNeDocsUK The Aligned Family of Documents Commercial Documents – Quotation, Order, Invoice Materials Management Documents – Despatch Advice, Packing List, Delivery Order Transport Documents – Shipping Instructions, Shipping Note, Waybill, Bill of Lading, Consignment Note Customs Documents – Export, Import, Transit Declarations, Cargo Reports Other Regulatory Documents – Certificate of Origin, SPS Cetificates, DGN Standards and Technologies for Paperless Trade UNeDocsUK Journey speeds up with Electronic Data Interchange Interbridge – Electronic Data Interchange Translator Spex – Document production system ADEEP –Aligned Document Electronic Equivalent Project Standards and Technologies for Paperless Trade UNeDocsUK Journey continues rolling along BUT we took a wrong turn ElecTra – Electronic Documents Interchange WebElecTra – Internet enabled Electronic Trade Documents Standards and Technologies for Paperless Trade UNeDocsUK Learned some valuable map reading skills Standard documents, UN TDED and EDI worked Bringing them together was complex Multipliers and Licensee network very important New Partnerships and Licensing system required Standards for XML were required Learn from the past and build on it International links were vital Semantic and data exchange interoperability Standards and Technologies for Paperless Trade UNeDocsUK Back on the right road Memorandum of Understanding with UNECE developing UNeDocs Syntax independent, technology neutral and standards based library of trade information Produce standard, interoperable outputs Transfer of UNeDocs to UNCEFACT Forum –TBG2 UNeDocsUK first national extension of the next generation of international standards for paper and electronic trade documentation and transaction data exchange UNeDocsUK major component of TBG2 Work programme Standards and Technologies for Paperless Trade UNeDocsUK The Standard of Standards Unified Modelling Methodology (UMM) – reuses the International Supply Chain Reference Model Core Component Technical Specification – ISO 15000-5 and 11179, UN Trade Data Elements Directory (UN TDED – ISO 7372) UN CEFACT Core Component Library (CCL) UN/EDIFACT message implementation guidelines for UN Standard Messages (UNSM) XML – ATG Naming & Design Rules document schemas UN Layout Key for International Trade Documents including Box Completion Guidelines (BCG) Standards and Technologies for Paperless Trade UNeDocsUK Deliverables UNeDocsUK Data Model Documents aligned to the UN Layout Key (UNLK) Box Completion Guidelines (BCG) EDI Message Implementation Guidelines (MIGs) XML Implementation Guidelines XML Schemas and Stylesheets Standards and Technologies for Paperless Trade UNeDocsUK Journey’s End? (...) > token 2003-02-14 2003-02-14 Bills Microdevices Joes Office Supply 1 5 Pencils, box #2 red Paper Document (UNLK) Electronic Document Exchange XML or UN/EDIFACT Electronic Edit Form Standards and Technologies for Paperless Trade UNeDocsUK Single Window application Reuse concept is based on the UN/CEFACT Core Component Library Foundation for new document types Provides legacy support and a migration path.
Language:English
Score: 899370.8 - https://unece.org/fileadmin/DA...ns/gordon-cragge_UNeDocsUK.pps
Data Source: un
SUMMARY RECORD OF THE 2340TH MEETING, HELD ON THURSDAY, 19 MAY 1994 : INTERNATIONAL LAW COMMISSION, 46TH SESSION, EXTRACT FROM THE YEARBOOK OF THE INTERNATIONAL LAW COMMISSION, 1994, VOL 1
It seemed to him that there was a related question to be considered, namely, why was it considered neces- sary to use the term "crime", or any other descriptive term, in order to do what was sought to be done in arti- cle 19: to introduce into the articles on State responsibil- ity the concept of jus cogens obligations; and then to dis- tinguish a breach of a jus cogens obligation from other lesser international wrongful acts? (...) All that would seem to be required was: (a) to follow closely, and limit oneself to, the language of the jus cogens provision in article 53 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, without using any additional accompanying descriptive term— and without introducing any illustrative list of examples for which there might not be adequate lex lata support; and (b) to indicate what remedies a breach of a jus cogens type of obligation would entail, in addition to those required for other wrongful acts. 22. The second principle question that seemed to arise, from the introduction of the concept of crime in arti- cle 19, was the question to which chapter II, section B, of the sixth report of the Special Rapporteur referred. (...) Bennouna (ibid.) had expressed opposi- tion to the use of the word, arguing that it was wrong to talk of "crimes" of the State, because that would be tan- tamount to a criminal law concept of responsibility, something that was out of place in international law.
Language:English
Score: 899029.5 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...?open&DS=A/CN.4/SR.2340&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
He says, “One of the greatest contributors towards the high prevalence of SGBV is cultural beliefs, such as having sex with a child will cure you of HIV, and a general lack of knowledge within the community that what they are doing is wrong.” “My focus here as a community leader is to take these cases into the community and have the whole prosecution take place there. This is the best way to sensitise people in the community that what they are doing is wrong.  Things will change with a good approach, but change needs to come from within the community.” - Dr Morris UNICEF Malawi/2019/Schermbrucker Partners of the SRH/SGBV/HIV (Sexual and Reproductive Health/ Sexual Gender-based violence) project meet at the Mulanje hospital to ensure perpetrators of gender-based violence are convicted, and victims are helped In order to address the high number of SGBV cases in Malawi, Baylor, with support from UNICEF implemented the Sexual and Reproductive Health/ Sexual Gender-based violence project. The project has seen key role players from government departments and civil society’s institutions coming together to learn to understand the concept of integrated Sexual Gender-Based Violence and how it is interconnected to HIV.
Language:English
Score: 898766.4 - https://www.unicef.org/malawi/...-taking-steps-towards-tomorrow
Data Source: un
SUMMARY RECORD OF THE 1668TH MEETING, HELD ON TUESDAY, 9 JUNE 1981 : INTERNATIONAL LAW COMMISSION, 33RD SESSION, EXTRACT FROM THE YEARBOOK OF THE INTERNATIONAL LAW COMMISSION, 1981, VOL 1
With regard to the three parameters for the possible new legal relationship arising from an inter- nationally wrongful act of a State, (see A/CN.4/344, para. 7), he said that the third parameter, which concerned the position of third States, could relate to two possible situations: first, a wrongful act directed against a State and constituting a breach of an obligation in respect of that Slate, while at the same time unintentionally causing injury to a third State; and second, a wrongful act affecting a State directly and, at the same time, giving other States rights under international law, thus making them third States. (...) He agreed with the Special Rapporteur's prop- osition concerning the concept of proportionality. To be complete and comprehensive, the draft articles should take account not only of the obligation on the part of the author State to cease its wrongful act but also of the consequences arising out of that wrongful act. (...) The obligation that had been breached suffered the effects of the internationally wrongful act contrary to the rule, and it was precisely because the obligation was af- fected in that way that the internationally wrongful act, the source of international responsibility, was created. 34.
Language:English
Score: 898721.2 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...?open&DS=A/CN.4/SR.1668&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
DRAFT REPORT : INTERNATIONAL LAW COMMISSION, 50TH SESSION, GENEVA, 20 APRIL-12 JUNE 1998, NEW YORK, 27 JULY-14 AUGUST 1998
Secondly, the use of the past tense implied that the wrongful act had been completed, but the draft articles clearly also applied to wrongful acts of a continuing character. (...) The word “damage” was used in the draft articles to refer to actual harm suffered, and a distinction was drawn between economically assessable damage and moral damage. That general concept of damage, covering both economically assessable and moral damage, ought to be distinguished from the term “injury”, A/CN.4/L.561/Add.4 4 meaning injuria or legal wrong as such. (...) Thirdly, an overemphasis on the concept of damage would prejudice the useful concept of moral damage, particularly in the field of human rights. 22.
Language:English
Score: 898657.8 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...n&DS=A/CN.4/L.561/ADD.4&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
Concluding remarks (cc) Ryszard Struzak 3 Flexible use concept • Matheson RJ: Flexible Spectrum Use Rights •Tutorial at International Symposium on Advanced Radio Technologies (ISART) 2005 • Spectrum traded, aggregated, divided and freely used for a wide range of user- selected services, under 2 rules only: 1. (...) Signal projection on (x1, x2) (cc) Ryszard Struzak 20 • To be rejected, an unintended signal must be sufficiently distant from the receiver’s reaction window in at least one variable – It must appear at wrong times, at wrong frequencies, wrongly coded etc. • The “sufficient” distance is system dependent and might be defined in • geographical domain (e.g. frequ. re-use distances), • frequency domain (e.g. frequency plans), • power domain (as in ultra-wideband systems sharing frequencies with narrow-band systems), • time domain (e.g. (...) Concluding remarks (cc) Ryszard Struzak 32 Concluding remarks • Flexible spectrum use doctrine is an interesting concept deserving further exploration • It is applicable to a wide range of active services but is not applicable to passive services. • It disregards some physical constraints due to unintended interactions and radio propagation • It requires „intelligent communication robots” -- self-organizing systems able to learn and adapt automatically/ dynamically to the environment (cc) Ryszard Struzak 33 • With „Classic” radio technology, flexible- use spectrum rights can be exercised only when the system in hand is isolated, or when it does not require any protection against interference and it does not disturb other systems. • New technologies of „intelligent communication robots” make practical the concept of flexible spectrum use rights (cc) Ryszard Struzak 34 • Physical constraints do not depend on spectrum management regime (static or dynamic) and spectrum use rights » They are the same when the spectrum resources are treated a private property or as an open commons, administratively regulated, or self-regulated through market forces • Unintended interactions with other systems determine system performances to the same degree as intended ones » Interacting systems behave as a network » Operation of systems in the network must be harmonized/ coordinated (cc) Ryszard Struzak 35 Selected references • Definition of spectrum use and efficiency of a radio system; REC.
Language:English
Score: 898625.8 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/fina...anagement/Kyiv/Struzak1-EN.PDF
Data Source: un
SUMMARY RECORD OF THE 2574TH MEETING, HELD ON WEDNESDAY, 19 MAY 1999 : INTERNATIONAL LAW COMMISSION, 51ST SESSION, EXTRACT FROM THE YEARBOOK OF THE INTERNATIONAL LAW COMMISSION, 1999, VOL 1
He would there- fore base his analysis on a somewhat simplistic, but radi- cal conception: that a wrongful act was completed if and as long as one and the same subject of responsibility pre- sented all the elements constituting its definition or if and as long as the elements prescribed in the rule were not present. 27. (...) The point was to determine in time when wrongfulness began. The Special Rappor- teur proposed, for example, that article 24 should be enti- tled “Completed and continuing wrongful acts”, but he did not define those concepts with the necessary precision and it was difficult to see the linkage between the title of each article and its wording. 38. (...) He fully subscribed to the idea that all possible permutations must be considered within article 18; and he thought that, for the moment, the Commission must retain the concept of a continuing wrongful act in chapter III.
Language:English
Score: 898057.5 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...?open&DS=A/CN.4/SR.2574&Lang=E
Data Source: ods